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android encryption/decryption with AES

Posted by: admin November 29, 2017 Leave a comment

Questions:

Is there a good example of how to encrypt/decrypt Image and other files with AES on Android? I’m working on a project which needs to encrypt/decrypt data but I’m not really sure how to do it.

Answers:

Warning: This answer contains code you should not use as it is insecure (using SHA1PRNG for key derivation and using AES in ECB mode)

Instead, use PBKDF2WithHmacSHA1 for key derivation and AES in CBC or GCM mode (GCM provides both privacy and integrity)

You could use functions like these:

private static byte[] encrypt(byte[] raw, byte[] clear) throws Exception {
    SecretKeySpec skeySpec = new SecretKeySpec(raw, "AES");
    Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance("AES");
    cipher.init(Cipher.ENCRYPT_MODE, skeySpec);
    byte[] encrypted = cipher.doFinal(clear);
    return encrypted;
}

private static byte[] decrypt(byte[] raw, byte[] encrypted) throws Exception {
    SecretKeySpec skeySpec = new SecretKeySpec(raw, "AES");
    Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance("AES");
    cipher.init(Cipher.DECRYPT_MODE, skeySpec);
    byte[] decrypted = cipher.doFinal(encrypted);
    return decrypted;
}

And invoke them like this:

ByteArrayOutputStream baos = new ByteArrayOutputStream();  
bm.compress(Bitmap.CompressFormat.PNG, 100, baos); // bm is the bitmap object   
byte[] b = baos.toByteArray();  

byte[] keyStart = "this is a key".getBytes();
KeyGenerator kgen = KeyGenerator.getInstance("AES");
SecureRandom sr = SecureRandom.getInstance("SHA1PRNG");
sr.setSeed(keyStart);
kgen.init(128, sr); // 192 and 256 bits may not be available
SecretKey skey = kgen.generateKey();
byte[] key = skey.getEncoded();    

// encrypt
byte[] encryptedData = encrypt(key,b);
// decrypt
byte[] decryptedData = decrypt(key,encryptedData);

This should work, I use similar code in a project right now.

Questions:
Answers:
import java.security.AlgorithmParameters;
import java.security.SecureRandom;
import java.security.spec.KeySpec;

import javax.crypto.Cipher;
import javax.crypto.KeyGenerator;
import javax.crypto.SecretKey;
import javax.crypto.SecretKeyFactory;
import javax.crypto.spec.IvParameterSpec;
import javax.crypto.spec.PBEKeySpec;
import javax.crypto.spec.SecretKeySpec;

class SecurityUtils {

  private static final byte[] salt = { (byte) 0xA4, (byte) 0x0B, (byte) 0xC8,
      (byte) 0x34, (byte) 0xD6, (byte) 0x95, (byte) 0xF3, (byte) 0x13 };

  private static int BLOCKS = 128;

  public static byte[] encryptAES(String seed, String cleartext)
      throws Exception {
    byte[] rawKey = getRawKey(seed.getBytes("UTF8"));
    SecretKeySpec skeySpec = new SecretKeySpec(rawKey, "AES");
    Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance("AES");
    cipher.init(Cipher.ENCRYPT_MODE, skeySpec);
    return cipher.doFinal(cleartext.getBytes("UTF8"));
  }

  public static byte[] decryptAES(String seed, byte[] data) throws Exception {
    byte[] rawKey = getRawKey(seed.getBytes("UTF8"));
    SecretKeySpec skeySpec = new SecretKeySpec(rawKey, "AES");
    Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance("AES");
    cipher.init(Cipher.DECRYPT_MODE, skeySpec);
    return cipher.doFinal(data);
  }

  private static byte[] getRawKey(byte[] seed) throws Exception {
    KeyGenerator kgen = KeyGenerator.getInstance("AES");
    SecureRandom sr = SecureRandom.getInstance("SHA1PRNG");
    sr.setSeed(seed);
    kgen.init(BLOCKS, sr); // 192 and 256 bits may not be available
    SecretKey skey = kgen.generateKey();
    byte[] raw = skey.getEncoded();
    return raw;
  }

  private static byte[] pad(byte[] seed) {
    byte[] nseed = new byte[BLOCKS / 8];
    for (int i = 0; i < BLOCKS / 8; i++)
      nseed[i] = 0;
    for (int i = 0; i < seed.length; i++)
      nseed[i] = seed[i];

    return nseed;
  }

  public static byte[] encryptPBE(String password, String cleartext)
      throws Exception {
    SecretKeyFactory factory = SecretKeyFactory
        .getInstance("PBKDF2WithHmacSHA1");
    KeySpec spec = new PBEKeySpec(password.toCharArray(), salt, 1024, 256);
    SecretKey tmp = factory.generateSecret(spec);
    SecretKey secret = new SecretKeySpec(tmp.getEncoded(), "AES");

    Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance("AES/CBC/PKCS5Padding");
    cipher.init(Cipher.ENCRYPT_MODE, secret);
    AlgorithmParameters params = cipher.getParameters();
    byte[] iv = params.getParameterSpec(IvParameterSpec.class).getIV();
    return cipher.doFinal(cleartext.getBytes("UTF-8"));
  }

  public static String decryptPBE(SecretKey secret, String ciphertext,
      byte[] iv) throws Exception {
    Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance("AES/CBC/PKCS5Padding");
    cipher.init(Cipher.DECRYPT_MODE, secret, new IvParameterSpec(iv));
    return new String(cipher.doFinal(ciphertext.getBytes()), "UTF-8");
  }

}

Questions:
Answers:

Old question but I upgrade the answers supporting Android prior and post 4.2 and considering all recent changes according to Android developers blog

Plus I leave a working example on my github repo.

import java.nio.charset.Charset;
import java.security.AlgorithmParameters;
import java.security.SecureRandom;

import javax.crypto.Cipher;
import javax.crypto.KeyGenerator;
import javax.crypto.SecretKey;
import javax.crypto.spec.IvParameterSpec;
import javax.crypto.spec.SecretKeySpec;

import org.apache.commons.codec.binary.Base64;


/*
* This software is provided 'as-is', without any express or implied
* warranty.  In no event will Google be held liable for any damages
* arising from the use of this software.
*
* Permission is granted to anyone to use this software for any purpose,
* including commercial applications, and to alter it and redistribute it
* freely, as long as the origin is not misrepresented.
* 
* @author: Ricardo Champa
* 
*/

public class MyCipher {

    private final static String ALGORITHM = "AES";
    private String mySecret;

    public MyCipher(String mySecret){
        this.mySecret = mySecret;
    }

    public MyCipherData encryptUTF8(String data){
        try{
            byte[] bytes = data.toString().getBytes("utf-8");
            byte[] bytesBase64 = Base64.encodeBase64(bytes);
            return encrypt(bytesBase64);
        }
        catch(Exception e){
            MyLogs.show(e.getMessage());
            return null;
        }

    }

    public String decryptUTF8(byte[] encryptedData, IvParameterSpec iv){
        try {
            byte[] decryptedData = decrypt(encryptedData, iv);
            byte[] decodedBytes = Base64.decodeBase64(decryptedData);
            String restored_data = new String(decodedBytes, Charset.forName("UTF8"));
            return restored_data;
        } catch (Exception e) {
            MyLogs.show(e.getMessage());;
            return null;
        }
    }

    //AES
    private MyCipherData encrypt(byte[] raw, byte[] clear) throws Exception {
        SecretKeySpec skeySpec = new SecretKeySpec(raw, ALGORITHM);
        Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance("AES/CBC/PKCS5Padding");
        //solved using PRNGFixes class
        cipher.init(Cipher.ENCRYPT_MODE, skeySpec);
        byte[] data = cipher.doFinal(clear);

        AlgorithmParameters params = cipher.getParameters();
        byte[] iv = params.getParameterSpec(IvParameterSpec.class).getIV();
        return new MyCipherData(data, iv);
    }

    private byte[] decrypt(byte[] raw, byte[] encrypted, IvParameterSpec iv) throws Exception {
        SecretKeySpec skeySpec = new SecretKeySpec(raw, ALGORITHM);
        Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance("AES/CBC/PKCS5Padding");
        cipher.init(Cipher.DECRYPT_MODE, skeySpec, iv);
        byte[] decrypted = cipher.doFinal(encrypted);
        return decrypted;
    }

    private byte[] getKey() throws Exception{
        byte[] keyStart = this.mySecret.getBytes("utf-8");
        KeyGenerator kgen = KeyGenerator.getInstance(ALGORITHM);

        SecureRandom sr = SecureRandom.getInstance("SHA1PRNG", "Crypto");
        //      if (android.os.Build.VERSION.SDK_INT >= 17) {
        //          sr = SecureRandom.getInstance("SHA1PRNG", "Crypto");
        //      } else {
        //          sr = SecureRandom.getInstance("SHA1PRNG");
        //      }
        sr.setSeed(keyStart);
        kgen.init(128, sr); // 192 and 256 bits may not be available
        SecretKey skey = kgen.generateKey();
        byte[] key = skey.getEncoded();
        return key;

    }
    ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
    private MyCipherData encrypt(byte[] data) throws Exception{
        return encrypt(getKey(),data);
    }
    private byte[] decrypt(byte[] encryptedData, IvParameterSpec iv) throws Exception{
        return decrypt(getKey(),encryptedData, iv);
    }
}

Questions:
Answers:

If you are encrypting a text file, then the following test/sample may be useful. It does the following:

  1. Create a byte stream,
  2. wraps that with AES encryption,
  3. wrap it next with text processing
  4. and lastly buffers it

    // AESdemo
    
    public class AESdemo extends Activity {
        boolean encryptionIsOn = true;
    
        @Override
        protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
            super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
            setContentView(R.layout.activity_aesdemo);
            // needs <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE" />
            String homeDirName = Environment.getExternalStorageDirectory().getAbsolutePath() +
                    "/" + getPackageName();
            File file = new File(homeDirName, "test.txt");
            byte[] keyBytes = getKey("password");
    
            try {
                File dir = new File(homeDirName);
                if (!dir.exists())
                    dir.mkdirs();
                if (!file.exists())
                    file.createNewFile();
    
                OutputStreamWriter osw;
    
                if (encryptionIsOn) {
                    Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance("AES/CBC/PKCS5Padding");
                    SecretKeySpec secretKeySpec = new SecretKeySpec(keyBytes, "AES");
                    IvParameterSpec ivParameterSpec = new IvParameterSpec(keyBytes);
                    cipher.init(Cipher.ENCRYPT_MODE, secretKeySpec, ivParameterSpec);
    
                    FileOutputStream fos = new FileOutputStream(file);
                    CipherOutputStream cos = new CipherOutputStream(fos, cipher);
                    osw = new OutputStreamWriter(cos, "UTF-8");
                }
                else    // not encryptionIsOn
                    osw = new FileWriter(file);
    
                BufferedWriter out = new BufferedWriter(osw);
                out.write("This is a test\n");
                out.close();
            }
            catch (Exception e) {
                System.out.println("Encryption Exception "+e);
            }
    
            ///////////////////////////////////
            try {
                InputStreamReader isr;
    
                if (encryptionIsOn) {
                    Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance("AES/CBC/PKCS5Padding");
                    SecretKeySpec secretKeySpec = new SecretKeySpec(keyBytes, "AES");
                    IvParameterSpec ivParameterSpec = new IvParameterSpec(keyBytes);
                    cipher.init(Cipher.DECRYPT_MODE, secretKeySpec, ivParameterSpec);
    
                    FileInputStream fis = new FileInputStream(file);
                    CipherInputStream cis = new CipherInputStream(fis, cipher);
                    isr = new InputStreamReader(cis, "UTF-8");
                }
                else
                    isr = new FileReader(file);
    
                BufferedReader in = new BufferedReader(isr);
                String line = in.readLine();
                System.out.println("Text read: <"+line+">");
                in.close();
            }
            catch (Exception e) {
                System.out.println("Decryption Exception "+e);
            }
        }
    
        private byte[] getKey(String password) throws UnsupportedEncodingException {
            String key = "";
            while (key.length() < 16)
                key += password;
            return key.substring(0, 16).getBytes("UTF-8");
        }
    }
    
Questions:
Answers:

Simple API to perform AES encryption on Android. This is the Android counterpart to the AESCrypt library Ruby and Obj-C (with the same defaults):

https://github.com/scottyab/AESCrypt-Android

Questions:
Answers:

To add bouncy castle to Android project: https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/org.bouncycastle/bcprov-jdk16/1.45

Add this line in your Main Activity:

static {
    Security.addProvider(new BouncyCastleProvider());
}

public class AESHelper {

    private static final String TAG = "AESHelper";

    public static byte[] encrypt(byte[] data, String initVector, String key) {
        try {
            IvParameterSpec iv = new IvParameterSpec(initVector.getBytes("UTF-8"));
            Cipher c = Cipher.getInstance("AES/CBC/PKCS5PADDING");
            SecretKeySpec k = new SecretKeySpec(Base64.decode(key, Base64.DEFAULT), "AES");
            c.init(Cipher.ENCRYPT_MODE, k, iv);
            return c.doFinal(data);
        } catch (Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }

        return null;
    }

    public static byte[] decrypt(byte[] data, String initVector, String key) {
        try {
            IvParameterSpec iv = new IvParameterSpec(initVector.getBytes("UTF-8"));
            Cipher c = Cipher.getInstance("AES/CBC/PKCS5PADDING");
            SecretKeySpec k = new SecretKeySpec(Base64.decode(key, Base64.DEFAULT), "AES");
            c.init(Cipher.DECRYPT_MODE, k, iv);
            return c.doFinal(data);
        } catch (Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }

        return null;
    }

    public static String keyGenerator() throws NoSuchAlgorithmException {
        KeyGenerator keyGenerator = KeyGenerator.getInstance("AES");
        keyGenerator.init(192);

        return Base64.encodeToString(keyGenerator.generateKey().getEncoded(),
                Base64.DEFAULT);
    }
}