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android – Espresso: Thread.sleep( );

Posted by: admin March 11, 2020 Leave a comment

Questions:

Espresso claims that there is no need for Thread.sleep();, but my code doesn’t work unless I include it. I am connecting to an IP. While connecting, a progress dialog is shown. I need a sleep to wait for the dialog to dismiss. This is my test snippet where I use it:

    IP.enterIP(); // fills out an IP dialog (this is done with espresso)

    //progress dialog is now shown
    Thread.sleep(1500);

    onView(withId(R.id.button).perform(click());

I have tried this code with and without the Thread.sleep(); but it says R.id.Button doesn’t exist. The only way I can get it to work is with sleep.

Also, I have tried replacing Thread.sleep(); with things like getInstrumentation().waitForIdleSync(); and still no luck.

Is this the only way to do this? Or am I missing something?

Thanks in advance.

How to&Answers:

On my mind correct approach will be:

/** Perform action of waiting for a specific view id. */
public static ViewAction waitId(final int viewId, final long millis) {
    return new ViewAction() {
        @Override
        public Matcher<View> getConstraints() {
            return isRoot();
        }

        @Override
        public String getDescription() {
            return "wait for a specific view with id <" + viewId + "> during " + millis + " millis.";
        }

        @Override
        public void perform(final UiController uiController, final View view) {
            uiController.loopMainThreadUntilIdle();
            final long startTime = System.currentTimeMillis();
            final long endTime = startTime + millis;
            final Matcher<View> viewMatcher = withId(viewId);

            do {
                for (View child : TreeIterables.breadthFirstViewTraversal(view)) {
                    // found view with required ID
                    if (viewMatcher.matches(child)) {
                        return;
                    }
                }

                uiController.loopMainThreadForAtLeast(50);
            }
            while (System.currentTimeMillis() < endTime);

            // timeout happens
            throw new PerformException.Builder()
                    .withActionDescription(this.getDescription())
                    .withViewDescription(HumanReadables.describe(view))
                    .withCause(new TimeoutException())
                    .build();
        }
    };
}

And then pattern of usage will be:

// wait during 15 seconds for a view
onView(isRoot()).perform(waitId(R.id.dialogEditor, TimeUnit.SECONDS.toMillis(15)));

Answer:

Thanks to AlexK for his awesome answer. There are cases that you need to make some delay in code. It is not necessarily waiting for server response but might be waiting for animation to get done. I personally have problem with Espresso idolingResources (I think we are writing many lines of code for a simple thing) so I changed the way AlexK was doing into following code:

/**
 * Perform action of waiting for a specific time.
 */
public static ViewAction waitFor(final long millis) {
    return new ViewAction() {
        @Override
        public Matcher<View> getConstraints() {
            return isRoot();
        }

        @Override
        public String getDescription() {
            return "Wait for " + millis + " milliseconds.";
        }

        @Override
        public void perform(UiController uiController, final View view) {
            uiController.loopMainThreadForAtLeast(millis);
        }
    };
}

So you can create a Delay class and put this method in it in order to access it easily.
You can use it in your Test class same way: onView(isRoot()).perform(waitFor(5000));

Answer:

I stumbled upon this thread when looking for an answer to a similar problem where I was waiting for a server response and changing visibility of elements based on response.

Whilst the solution above definitely helped, I eventually found this excellent example from chiuki and now use that approach as my go-to whenever I’m waiting for actions to occur during app idle periods.

I’ve added ElapsedTimeIdlingResource() to my own utilities class, can now effectively use that as an Espresso-proper alternative, and now usage is nice and clean:

// Make sure Espresso does not time out
IdlingPolicies.setMasterPolicyTimeout(waitingTime * 2, TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS);
IdlingPolicies.setIdlingResourceTimeout(waitingTime * 2, TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS);

// Now we wait
IdlingResource idlingResource = new ElapsedTimeIdlingResource(waitingTime);
Espresso.registerIdlingResources(idlingResource);

// Stop and verify
onView(withId(R.id.toggle_button))
    .check(matches(withText(R.string.stop)))
    .perform(click());
onView(withId(R.id.result))
    .check(matches(withText(success ? R.string.success: R.string.failure)));

// Clean up
Espresso.unregisterIdlingResources(idlingResource);

Answer:

I think it’s more easy to add this line:

SystemClock.sleep(1500);

Waits a given number of milliseconds (of uptimeMillis) before returning. Similar to sleep(long), but does not throw InterruptedException; interrupt() events are deferred until the next interruptible operation. Does not return until at least the specified number of milliseconds has elapsed.

Answer:

You can just use Barista methods:

BaristaSleepActions.sleep(2000);

BaristaSleepActions.sleep(2, SECONDS);

Barista is a library that wraps Espresso to avoid adding all the code needed by the accepted answer. And here’s a link! https://github.com/SchibstedSpain/Barista

Answer:

I’m new to coding and Espresso, so while I know the good and reasonable solution is to use idling, I’m not yet intelligent enough to do that.

Until I become more knowledgeable, I still need my tests to somehow run though, so for now I’m using this dirty solution which makes a number of attempts at finding an element, stops if it finds it and if not, briefly sleeps and starts again until it reach the max nr of attempts (the highest number of attempts so far has been around 150).

private static boolean waitForElementUntilDisplayed(ViewInteraction element) {
    int i = 0;
    while (i++ < ATTEMPTS) {
        try {
            element.check(matches(isDisplayed()));
            return true;
        } catch (Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
            try {
                Thread.sleep(WAITING_TIME);
            } catch (Exception e1) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            }
        }
    }
    return false;
}

I’m using this in all the methods that are finding elements by ID, text, parent etc:

static ViewInteraction findById(int itemId) {
    ViewInteraction element = onView(withId(itemId));
    waitForElementUntilDisplayed(element);
    return element;
}

Answer:

Espresso is built to avoid sleep() calls in the tests. Your test should not open a dialog to enter an IP, that should be the tested activity’s responsability.

On the other hand, your UI test should:

  • Wait for the IP dialog to appear
  • Fill in the IP address and click enter
  • Wait for your button to appear and click it

The test should look something like this:

// type the IP and press OK
onView (withId (R.id.dialog_ip_edit_text))
  .check (matches(isDisplayed()))
  .perform (typeText("IP-TO-BE-TYPED"));

onView (withText (R.string.dialog_ok_button_title))
  .check (matches(isDisplayed()))
  .perform (click());

// now, wait for the button and click it
onView (withId (R.id.button))
  .check (matches(isDisplayed()))
  .perform (click());

Espresso waits for everything that is happening both in the UI thread and the AsyncTask pool to finish before executing your tests.

Remember that your tests shouldn’t do anything that is your application responsability. It should behave like an “well informed user”: a user that clicks, verify that something is shown in the screen, but, as a matter of fact, know the IDs of the components

Answer:

This is similar to this answer but uses a timeout instead of attempts and can be chained with other ViewInteractions:

/**
 * Wait for view to be visible
 */
fun ViewInteraction.waitUntilVisible(timeout: Long): ViewInteraction {
    val startTime = System.currentTimeMillis()
    val endTime = startTime + timeout

    do {
        try {
            check(matches(isDisplayed()))
            return this
        } catch (e: NoMatchingViewException) {
            Thread.sleep(50)
        }
    } while (System.currentTimeMillis() < endTime)

    throw TimeoutException()
}

Usage:

onView(withId(R.id.whatever))
    .waitUntilVisible(5000)
    .perform(click())

Answer:

You should use Espresso Idling Resource, it’s suggested at this CodeLab

An idling resource represents an asynchronous operation whose results
affect subsequent operations in a UI test. By registering idling
resources with Espresso, you can validate these asynchronous
operations more reliably when testing your app.

Example of an Asynchronous call from the Presenter

@Override
public void loadNotes(boolean forceUpdate) {
   mNotesView.setProgressIndicator(true);
   if (forceUpdate) {
       mNotesRepository.refreshData();
   }

   // The network request might be handled in a different thread so make sure Espresso knows
   // that the app is busy until the response is handled.
   EspressoIdlingResource.increment(); // App is busy until further notice

   mNotesRepository.getNotes(new NotesRepository.LoadNotesCallback() {
       @Override
       public void onNotesLoaded(List<Note> notes) {
           EspressoIdlingResource.decrement(); // Set app as idle.
           mNotesView.setProgressIndicator(false);
           mNotesView.showNotes(notes);
       }
   });
}

Dependencies

androidTestImplementation 'androidx.test.espresso:espresso-core:3.1.1'
    implementation 'androidx.test.espresso:espresso-idling-resource:3.1.1'

For androidx

androidTestImplementation 'com.android.support.test.espresso:espresso-core:3.0.2'
    implementation 'com.android.support.test.espresso:espresso-idling-resource:3.0.2'

Official Repo: https://github.com/googlecodelabs/android-testing

IdlingResource Example: https://github.com/googlesamples/android-testing/tree/master/ui/espresso/IdlingResourceSample

Answer:

While I think it’s best to use Idling Resources for this (https://google.github.io/android-testing-support-library/docs/espresso/idling-resource/) you could probably use this as a fallback:

/**
 * Contains view interactions, view actions and view assertions which allow to set a timeout
 * for finding a view and performing an action/view assertion on it.
 * To be used instead of {@link Espresso}'s methods.
 * 
 * @author Piotr Zawadzki
 */
public class TimeoutEspresso {

    private static final int SLEEP_IN_A_LOOP_TIME = 50;

    private static final long DEFAULT_TIMEOUT_IN_MILLIS = 10 * 1000L;

    /**
     * Use instead of {@link Espresso#onView(Matcher)}
     * @param timeoutInMillis timeout after which an error is thrown
     * @param viewMatcher view matcher to check for view
     * @return view interaction
     */
    public static TimedViewInteraction onViewWithTimeout(long timeoutInMillis, @NonNull final Matcher<View> viewMatcher) {

        final long startTime = System.currentTimeMillis();
        final long endTime = startTime + timeoutInMillis;

        do {
            try {
                return new TimedViewInteraction(Espresso.onView(viewMatcher));
            } catch (NoMatchingViewException ex) {
                //ignore
            }

            SystemClock.sleep(SLEEP_IN_A_LOOP_TIME);
        }
        while (System.currentTimeMillis() < endTime);

        // timeout happens
        throw new PerformException.Builder()
                .withCause(new TimeoutException("Timeout occurred when trying to find: " + viewMatcher.toString()))
                .build();
    }

    /**
     * Use instead of {@link Espresso#onView(Matcher)}.
     * Same as {@link #onViewWithTimeout(long, Matcher)} but with the default timeout {@link #DEFAULT_TIMEOUT_IN_MILLIS}.
     * @param viewMatcher view matcher to check for view
     * @return view interaction
     */
    public static TimedViewInteraction onViewWithTimeout(@NonNull final Matcher<View> viewMatcher) {
        return onViewWithTimeout(DEFAULT_TIMEOUT_IN_MILLIS, viewMatcher);
    }

    /**
     * A wrapper around {@link ViewInteraction} which allows to set timeouts for view actions and assertions.
     */
    public static class TimedViewInteraction {

        private ViewInteraction wrappedViewInteraction;

        public TimedViewInteraction(ViewInteraction wrappedViewInteraction) {
            this.wrappedViewInteraction = wrappedViewInteraction;
        }

        /**
         * @see ViewInteraction#perform(ViewAction...)
         */
        public TimedViewInteraction perform(final ViewAction... viewActions) {
            wrappedViewInteraction.perform(viewActions);
            return this;
        }

        /**
         * {@link ViewInteraction#perform(ViewAction...)} with a timeout of {@link #DEFAULT_TIMEOUT_IN_MILLIS}.
         * @see ViewInteraction#perform(ViewAction...)
         */
        public TimedViewInteraction performWithTimeout(final ViewAction... viewActions) {
            return performWithTimeout(DEFAULT_TIMEOUT_IN_MILLIS, viewActions);
        }

        /**
         * {@link ViewInteraction#perform(ViewAction...)} with a timeout.
         * @see ViewInteraction#perform(ViewAction...)
         */
        public TimedViewInteraction performWithTimeout(long timeoutInMillis, final ViewAction... viewActions) {
            final long startTime = System.currentTimeMillis();
            final long endTime = startTime + timeoutInMillis;

            do {
                try {
                    return perform(viewActions);
                } catch (RuntimeException ex) {
                    //ignore
                }

                SystemClock.sleep(SLEEP_IN_A_LOOP_TIME);
            }
            while (System.currentTimeMillis() < endTime);

            // timeout happens
            throw new PerformException.Builder()
                    .withCause(new TimeoutException("Timeout occurred when trying to perform view actions: " + viewActions))
                    .build();
        }

        /**
         * @see ViewInteraction#withFailureHandler(FailureHandler)
         */
        public TimedViewInteraction withFailureHandler(FailureHandler failureHandler) {
            wrappedViewInteraction.withFailureHandler(failureHandler);
            return this;
        }

        /**
         * @see ViewInteraction#inRoot(Matcher)
         */
        public TimedViewInteraction inRoot(Matcher<Root> rootMatcher) {
            wrappedViewInteraction.inRoot(rootMatcher);
            return this;
        }

        /**
         * @see ViewInteraction#check(ViewAssertion)
         */
        public TimedViewInteraction check(final ViewAssertion viewAssert) {
            wrappedViewInteraction.check(viewAssert);
            return this;
        }

        /**
         * {@link ViewInteraction#check(ViewAssertion)} with a timeout of {@link #DEFAULT_TIMEOUT_IN_MILLIS}.
         * @see ViewInteraction#check(ViewAssertion)
         */
        public TimedViewInteraction checkWithTimeout(final ViewAssertion viewAssert) {
            return checkWithTimeout(DEFAULT_TIMEOUT_IN_MILLIS, viewAssert);
        }

        /**
         * {@link ViewInteraction#check(ViewAssertion)} with a timeout.
         * @see ViewInteraction#check(ViewAssertion)
         */
        public TimedViewInteraction checkWithTimeout(long timeoutInMillis, final ViewAssertion viewAssert) {
            final long startTime = System.currentTimeMillis();
            final long endTime = startTime + timeoutInMillis;

            do {
                try {
                    return check(viewAssert);
                } catch (RuntimeException ex) {
                    //ignore
                }

                SystemClock.sleep(SLEEP_IN_A_LOOP_TIME);
            }
            while (System.currentTimeMillis() < endTime);

            // timeout happens
            throw new PerformException.Builder()
                    .withCause(new TimeoutException("Timeout occurred when trying to check: " + viewAssert.toString()))
                    .build();
        }
    }
}

and then call it in your code as e.g.:

onViewWithTimeout(withId(R.id.button).perform(click());

instead of

onView(withId(R.id.button).perform(click());

This also allows to you to add timeouts for view actions and view assertions.

Answer:

My utility repeats runnable or callable executing until it passes without errors or throws throwable after a timeout.
It works perfectly for Espresso tests!

Suppose the last view interaction (button click) activates some background threads (network, database etc.).
As the result, a new screen should appear and we want to check it in our next step,
but we don’t know when the new screen will be ready to be tested.

The recommended approach is to force your app to send messages about threads states to your test.
Sometimes we can use built-in mechanisms like OkHttp3IdlingResource.
In other cases, you should insert code pieces in different places of your app sources (you should known app logic!) for testing support only.
Moreover, we should turn off all your animations (although it’s the part of UI).

The other approach is waiting, e.g. SystemClock.sleep(10000). But we don’t know how long to wait and even long delays can’t guarantee success.
On the other hand, your test will last long.

My approach is to add time condition to view interaction. E.g. we test that new screen should appear during 10000 mc (timeout).
But we don’t wait and check it as quickly as we want (e.g. every 100 ms)
Of course, we block test thread such way, but usually, it’s just what we need in such cases.

Usage:

long timeout=10000;
long matchDelay=100; //(check every 100 ms)
EspressoExecutor myExecutor = new EspressoExecutor<ViewInteraction>(timeout, matchDelay);

ViewInteraction loginButton = onView(withId(R.id.login_btn));
loginButton.perform(click());

myExecutor.callForResult(()->onView(allOf(withId(R.id.title),isDisplayed())));

This is my class source:

/**
 * Created by alexshr on 02.05.2017.
 */

package com.skb.goodsapp;

import android.os.SystemClock;
import android.util.Log;

import java.util.Date;
import java.util.concurrent.Callable;

/**
 * The utility repeats runnable or callable executing until it pass without errors or throws throwable after timeout.
 * It works perfectly for Espresso tests.
 * <p>
 * Suppose the last view interaction (button click) activates some background threads (network, database etc.).
 * As the result new screen should appear and we want to check it in our next step,
 * but we don't know when new screen will be ready to be tested.
 * <p>
 * Recommended approach is to force your app to send messages about threads states to your test.
 * Sometimes we can use built-in mechanisms like OkHttp3IdlingResource.
 * In other cases you should insert code pieces in different places of your app sources (you should known app logic!) for testing support only.
 * Moreover, we should turn off all your animations (although it's the part on ui).
 * <p>
 * The other approach is waiting, e.g. SystemClock.sleep(10000). But we don't known how long to wait and even long delays can't guarantee success.
 * On the other hand your test will last long.
 * <p>
 * My approach is to add time condition to view interaction. E.g. we test that new screen should appear during 10000 mc (timeout).
 * But we don't wait and check new screen as quickly as it appears.
 * Of course, we block test thread such way, but usually it's just what we need in such cases.
 * <p>
 * Usage:
 * <p>
 * long timeout=10000;
 * long matchDelay=100; //(check every 100 ms)
 * EspressoExecutor myExecutor = new EspressoExecutor<ViewInteraction>(timeout, matchDelay);
 * <p>
 * ViewInteraction loginButton = onView(withId(R.id.login_btn));
 * loginButton.perform(click());
 * <p>
 * myExecutor.callForResult(()->onView(allOf(withId(R.id.title),isDisplayed())));
 */
public class EspressoExecutor<T> {

    private static String LOG = EspressoExecutor.class.getSimpleName();

    public static long REPEAT_DELAY_DEFAULT = 100;
    public static long BEFORE_DELAY_DEFAULT = 0;

    private long mRepeatDelay;//delay between attempts
    private long mBeforeDelay;//to start attempts after this initial delay only

    private long mTimeout;//timeout for view interaction

    private T mResult;

    /**
     * @param timeout     timeout for view interaction
     * @param repeatDelay - delay between executing attempts
     * @param beforeDelay - to start executing attempts after this delay only
     */

    public EspressoExecutor(long timeout, long repeatDelay, long beforeDelay) {
        mRepeatDelay = repeatDelay;
        mBeforeDelay = beforeDelay;
        mTimeout = timeout;
        Log.d(LOG, "created timeout=" + timeout + " repeatDelay=" + repeatDelay + " beforeDelay=" + beforeDelay);
    }

    public EspressoExecutor(long timeout, long repeatDelay) {
        this(timeout, repeatDelay, BEFORE_DELAY_DEFAULT);
    }

    public EspressoExecutor(long timeout) {
        this(timeout, REPEAT_DELAY_DEFAULT);
    }


    /**
     * call with result
     *
     * @param callable
     * @return callable result
     * or throws RuntimeException (test failure)
     */
    public T call(Callable<T> callable) {
        call(callable, null);
        return mResult;
    }

    /**
     * call without result
     *
     * @param runnable
     * @return void
     * or throws RuntimeException (test failure)
     */
    public void call(Runnable runnable) {
        call(runnable, null);
    }

    private void call(Object obj, Long initialTime) {
        try {
            if (initialTime == null) {
                initialTime = new Date().getTime();
                Log.d(LOG, "sleep delay= " + mBeforeDelay);
                SystemClock.sleep(mBeforeDelay);
            }

            if (obj instanceof Callable) {
                Log.d(LOG, "call callable");
                mResult = ((Callable<T>) obj).call();
            } else {
                Log.d(LOG, "call runnable");
                ((Runnable) obj).run();
            }
        } catch (Throwable e) {
            long remain = new Date().getTime() - initialTime;
            Log.d(LOG, "remain time= " + remain);
            if (remain > mTimeout) {
                throw new RuntimeException(e);
            } else {
                Log.d(LOG, "sleep delay= " + mRepeatDelay);
                SystemClock.sleep(mRepeatDelay);
                call(obj, initialTime);
            }
        }
    }
}

https://gist.github.com/alexshr/ca90212e49e74eb201fbc976255b47e0

Answer:

This is a helper I’m using in Kotlin for Android Tests. In my case I’m using the longOperation to mimic the server response but you can tweak it to your purpose.

@Test
fun ensureItemDetailIsCalledForRowClicked() {
    onView(withId(R.id.input_text))
        .perform(ViewActions.typeText(""), ViewActions.closeSoftKeyboard())
    onView(withId(R.id.search_icon)).perform(ViewActions.click())
    longOperation(
        longOperation = { Thread.sleep(1000) },
        callback = {onView(withId(R.id.result_list)).check(isVisible())})
}

private fun longOperation(
    longOperation: ()-> Unit,
    callback: ()-> Unit
){
    Thread{
        longOperation()
        callback()
    }.start()
}

Answer:

I will add my way of doing this to the mix:

fun suspendUntilSuccess(actionToSucceed: () -> Unit, iteration : Int = 0) {
    try {
        actionToSucceed.invoke()
    } catch (e: Throwable) {
        Thread.sleep(200)
        val incrementedIteration : Int = iteration + 1
        if (incrementedIteration == 25) {
            fail("Failed after waiting for action to succeed for 5 seconds.")
        }
        suspendUntilSuccess(actionToSucceed, incrementedIteration)
    }
}

Called like this:

suspendUntilSuccess({
    checkThat.viewIsVisible(R.id.textView)
})

You can add parameters like max iterations, iteration length, etc to the suspendUntilSuccess function.

I still prefer using idling resources, but when the tests are acting up due to slow animations on the device for instance, I use this function and it works well. It can of course hang for up to 5 seconds as it is before failing, so it could increase the execution time of your tests if the action to succeed never succeeds.