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android – How to determine when Fragment becomes visible in ViewPager

Posted by: admin March 10, 2020 Leave a comment

Questions:

Problem: Fragment onResume() in ViewPager is fired before the fragment becomes actually visible.

For example, I have 2 fragments with ViewPager and FragmentPagerAdapter. The second fragment is only available for authorized users and I need to ask the user to log in when the fragment becomes visible (using an alert dialog).

BUT the ViewPager creates the second fragment when the first is visible in order to cache the second fragment and makes it visible when the user starts swiping.

So the onResume() event is fired in the second fragment long before it becomes visible. That’s why I’m trying to find an event which fires when the second fragment becomes visible to show a dialog at the appropriate moment.

How can this be done?

How to&Answers:

UPDATE: Android Support Library (rev 11) finally fixed the user visible hint issue, now if you use support library for fragments, then you can safely use getUserVisibleHint() or override setUserVisibleHint() to capture the changes as described by gorn’s answer.

UPDATE 1 Here is one small problem with getUserVisibleHint(). This value is by default true.

// Hint provided by the app that this fragment is currently visible to the user.
boolean mUserVisibleHint = true;

So there might be a problem when you try to use it before setUserVisibleHint() was invoked. As a workaround you might set value in onCreate method like this.

public void onCreate(@Nullable Bundle savedInstanceState) {
    setUserVisibleHint(false);

The outdated answer:

In most use cases, ViewPager only show one page at a time, but the pre-cached fragments are also put to “visible” state (actually invisible) if you are using FragmentStatePagerAdapter in Android Support Library pre-r11.

I override :

public class MyFragment extends Fragment {
    @Override
    public void setMenuVisibility(final boolean visible) {
        super.setMenuVisibility(visible);
        if (visible) {
            // ...
        }
    }
   // ...
}

To capture the focus state of fragment, which I think is the most suitable state of the “visibility” you mean, since only one fragment in ViewPager can actually place its menu items together with parent activity’s items.

Answer:

How to determine when Fragment becomes visible in ViewPager

You can do the following by overriding setUserVisibleHint in your Fragment:

public class MyFragment extends Fragment {
    @Override
    public void setUserVisibleHint(boolean isVisibleToUser) {
        super.setUserVisibleHint(isVisibleToUser);
        if (isVisibleToUser) {
        }
        else {
        }
    }
}

Answer:

This seems to restore the normal onResume() behavior that you would expect. It plays well with pressing the home key to leave the app and then re-entering the app. onResume() is not called twice in a row.

@Override
public void setUserVisibleHint(boolean visible)
{
    super.setUserVisibleHint(visible);
    if (visible && isResumed())
    {
        //Only manually call onResume if fragment is already visible
        //Otherwise allow natural fragment lifecycle to call onResume
        onResume();
    }
}

@Override
public void onResume()
{
    super.onResume();
    if (!getUserVisibleHint())
    {
        return;
    }

    //INSERT CUSTOM CODE HERE
}

Answer:

Here is another way using onPageChangeListener:

  ViewPager pager = (ViewPager) findByViewId(R.id.viewpager);
  FragmentPagerAdapter adapter = new FragmentPageAdapter(getFragmentManager);
  pager.setAdapter(adapter);
  pager.setOnPageChangeListener(new OnPageChangeListener() {

  public void onPageSelected(int pageNumber) {
    // Just define a callback method in your fragment and call it like this! 
    adapter.getItem(pageNumber).imVisible();

  }

  public void onPageScrolled(int arg0, float arg1, int arg2) {
    // TODO Auto-generated method stub

  }

  public void onPageScrollStateChanged(int arg0) {
    // TODO Auto-generated method stub

  }
});

Answer:

setUserVisibleHint() gets called sometimes before onCreateView() and sometimes after which causes trouble.

To overcome this you need to check isResumed() as well inside setUserVisibleHint() method. But in this case i realized setUserVisibleHint() gets called only if Fragment is resumed and visible, NOT when Created.

So if you want to update something when Fragment is visible, put your update function both in onCreate() and setUserVisibleHint():

@Override
public View onCreateView(...){
    ...
    myUIUpdate();
    ...        
}
  ....
@Override
public void setUserVisibleHint(boolean visible){
    super.setUserVisibleHint(visible);
    if (visible && isResumed()){
        myUIUpdate();
    }
}

UPDATE: Still i realized myUIUpdate() gets called twice sometimes, the reason is, if you have 3 tabs and this code is on 2nd tab, when you first open 1st tab, the 2nd tab is also created even it is not visible and myUIUpdate() is called. Then when you swipe to 2nd tab, myUIUpdate() from if (visible && isResumed()) is called and as a result,myUIUpdate() may get called twice in a second.

The other problem is !visible in setUserVisibleHint gets called both 1) when you go out of fragment screen and 2) before it is created, when you switch to fragment screen first time.

Solution:

private boolean fragmentResume=false;
private boolean fragmentVisible=false;
private boolean fragmentOnCreated=false;
...

@Override
public View onCreateView(...){
    ...
    //Initialize variables
    if (!fragmentResume && fragmentVisible){   //only when first time fragment is created
        myUIUpdate();
    }
    ...        
}

@Override
public void setUserVisibleHint(boolean visible){
    super.setUserVisibleHint(visible);
    if (visible && isResumed()){   // only at fragment screen is resumed
        fragmentResume=true;
        fragmentVisible=false;
        fragmentOnCreated=true;
        myUIUpdate();
    }else  if (visible){        // only at fragment onCreated
        fragmentResume=false;
        fragmentVisible=true;
        fragmentOnCreated=true;
    }
    else if(!visible && fragmentOnCreated){// only when you go out of fragment screen
        fragmentVisible=false;
        fragmentResume=false;
    }
}

Explanation:

fragmentResume,fragmentVisible: Makes sure myUIUpdate() in onCreateView() is called only when fragment is created and visible, not on resume. It also solves problem when you are at 1st tab, 2nd tab is created even if it is not visible. This solves that and checks if fragment screen is visible when onCreate.

fragmentOnCreated: Makes sure fragment is not visible, and not called when you create fragment first time. So now this if clause only gets called when you swipe out of fragment.

Update
You can put all this code in BaseFragment code like this and override method.

Answer:

To detect Fragment in ViewPager visible, I’m quite sure that only using setUserVisibleHint is not enough.
Here is my solution to check if a fragment is visible or invisible. First when launching viewpager, switch between page, go to another activity/fragment/ background/foreground`

public class BaseFragmentHelpLoadDataWhenVisible extends Fragment {
    protected boolean mIsVisibleToUser; // you can see this variable may absolutely <=> getUserVisibleHint() but it not. Currently, after many test I find that

    /**
     * This method will be called when viewpager creates fragment and when we go to this fragment background or another activity or fragment
     * NOT called when we switch between each page in ViewPager
     */
    @Override
    public void onStart() {
        super.onStart();
        if (mIsVisibleToUser) {
            onVisible();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void onStop() {
        super.onStop();
        if (mIsVisibleToUser) {
            onInVisible();
        }
    }

    /**
     * This method will called at first time viewpager created and when we switch between each page
     * NOT called when we go to background or another activity (fragment) when we go back
     */
    @Override
    public void setUserVisibleHint(boolean isVisibleToUser) {
        super.setUserVisibleHint(isVisibleToUser);
        mIsVisibleToUser = isVisibleToUser;
        if (isResumed()) { // fragment have created
            if (mIsVisibleToUser) {
                onVisible();
            } else {
                onInVisible();
            }
        }
    }

    public void onVisible() {
        Toast.makeText(getActivity(), TAG + "visible", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
    }

    public void onInVisible() {
        Toast.makeText(getActivity(), TAG + "invisible", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
    }
}

EXPLANATION
You can check the logcat below carefully then I think you may know why this solution will work

First launch

Fragment1: setUserVisibleHint: isVisibleToUser=false isResumed=false
Fragment2: setUserVisibleHint: isVisibleToUser=false isResumed=false
Fragment3: setUserVisibleHint: isVisibleToUser=false isResumed=false
Fragment1: setUserVisibleHint: isVisibleToUser=true isResumed=false // AT THIS TIME isVisibleToUser=true but fragment still not created. If you do something with View here, you will receive exception
Fragment1: onCreateView
Fragment1: onStart mIsVisibleToUser=true
Fragment2: onCreateView
Fragment3: onCreateView
Fragment2: onStart mIsVisibleToUser=false
Fragment3: onStart mIsVisibleToUser=false

Go to page2

Fragment1: setUserVisibleHint: isVisibleToUser=false isResumed=true
Fragment2: setUserVisibleHint: isVisibleToUser=true isResumed=true

Go to page3

Fragment2: setUserVisibleHint: isVisibleToUser=false isResumed=true
Fragment3: setUserVisibleHint: isVisibleToUser=true isResumed=true

Go to background:

Fragment1: onStop mIsVisibleToUser=false
Fragment2: onStop mIsVisibleToUser=false
Fragment3: onStop mIsVisibleToUser=true

Go to foreground

Fragment1: onStart mIsVisibleToUser=false
Fragment2: onStart mIsVisibleToUser=false
Fragment3: onStart mIsVisibleToUser=true

DEMO project here

Hope it help

Answer:

package com.example.com.ui.fragment;


import android.os.Bundle;
import android.support.annotation.Nullable;
import android.support.v4.app.Fragment;
import android.view.LayoutInflater;
import android.view.View;
import android.view.ViewGroup;

import com.example.com.R;

public class SubscribeFragment extends Fragment {

    @Override
    public View onCreateView(LayoutInflater inflater, @Nullable ViewGroup container, @Nullable Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        View view = inflater.inflate(R.layout.fragment_subscribe, container, false);
        return view;
    }

    @Override
    public void setUserVisibleHint(boolean isVisibleToUser) {
        super.setUserVisibleHint(isVisibleToUser);

        if (isVisibleToUser) {
            // called here
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void onViewCreated(View view, @Nullable Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onViewCreated(view, savedInstanceState);
    }
}

Answer:

Override setPrimaryItem() in the FragmentPagerAdapter subclass. I use this method, and it works well.

@Override
public void setPrimaryItem(ViewGroup container, int position, Object object) {
    // This is what calls setMenuVisibility() on the fragments
    super.setPrimaryItem(container, position, object);

    if (object instanceof MyWhizBangFragment) {
        MyWhizBangFragment fragment = (MyWhizBangFragment) object;
        fragment.doTheThingYouNeedToDoOnBecomingVisible();
    }
}

Answer:

In ViewPager2 and ViewPager from version androidx.fragment:fragment:1.1.0 you can just use onPause and onResume callbacks to determine which fragment is currently visible for the user. onResume callback is called when fragment became visible and onPause when it stops to be visible.

In case of ViewPager2 it is default behavior but the same behavior can be enabled for old good ViewPager easily.

To enable this behavior in the first ViewPager you have to pass FragmentPagerAdapter.BEHAVIOR_RESUME_ONLY_CURRENT_FRAGMENT parameter as second argument of FragmentPagerAdapter constructor.

FragmentPagerAdapter(fragmentManager, BEHAVIOR_RESUME_ONLY_CURRENT_FRAGMENT)

Note: setUserVisibleHint() method and FragmentPagerAdapter constructor with one parameter are now deprecated in the new version of Fragment from android jetpack.

Answer:

Override Fragment.onHiddenChanged() for that.

public void onHiddenChanged(boolean hidden)

Called when the hidden state (as returned by isHidden()) of the fragment has changed. Fragments start out not hidden; this will be called whenever the fragment changes state from that.

Parameters
hiddenboolean: True if the fragment is now hidden, false if it is not visible.

Answer:

I figured out that onCreateOptionsMenu and onPrepareOptionsMenu methods called only in the case of the fragment really visible. I could not found any method which behaves like these, also I tried OnPageChangeListener but it did not work for the situations, for example, I need a variable initialized in onCreate method.

So these two methods can be used for this problem as a workaround, specifically for little and short jobs.

I think, this is the better solution but not the best. I will use this but wait for better solution at the same time.

Regards.

Answer:

Another solution posted here overriding setPrimaryItem in the pageradapter by kris larson almost worked for me. But this method is called multiple times for each setup. Also I got NPE from views, etc. in the fragment as this is not ready the first few times this method is called. With the following changes this worked for me:

private int mCurrentPosition = -1;

@Override
public void setPrimaryItem(ViewGroup container, int position, Object object) {
    super.setPrimaryItem(container, position, object);

    if (position == mCurrentPosition) {
        return;
    }

    if (object instanceof MyWhizBangFragment) {
        MyWhizBangFragment fragment = (MyWhizBangFragment) object;

        if (fragment.isResumed()) {
            mCurrentPosition = position;
            fragment.doTheThingYouNeedToDoOnBecomingVisible();
        }
    }
}

Answer:

Add following Code inside fragment

@Override
public void setMenuVisibility(final boolean visible) 
 {
    super.setMenuVisibility(visible);
    if (visible && isResumed()) 
     {

     }
}

Answer:

I encountered the same problem while working with FragmentStatePagerAdapters and 3 tabs. I had to show a Dilaog whenever the 1st tab was clicked and hide it on clicking other tabs.

Overriding setUserVisibleHint() alone didn’t help to find the current visible fragment.

When clicking from 3rd tab —–> 1st tab.
It triggered twice for 2nd fragment and for 1st fragment.
I combined it with isResumed() method.

    @Override
public void setUserVisibleHint(boolean isVisibleToUser) {
    super.setUserVisibleHint(isVisibleToUser);
    isVisible = isVisibleToUser;

    // Make sure that fragment is currently visible
    if (!isVisible && isResumed()) {
        // Call code when Fragment not visible
    } else if (isVisible && isResumed()) {
       // Call code when Fragment becomes visible.
    }

}

Answer:

We have a special case with MVP where the fragment needs to notify the presenter that the view has become visible, and the presenter is injected by Dagger in fragment.onAttach().

setUserVisibleHint() is not enough, we’ve detected 3 different cases that needed to be addressed (onAttach() is mentioned so that you know when the presenter is available):

  1. Fragment has just been created. The system makes the following calls:

    setUserVisibleHint() // before fragment's lifecycle calls, so presenter is null
    onAttach()
    ...
    onResume()
    
  2. Fragment already created and home button is pressed. When restoring the app to foreground, this is called:

    onResume()
    
  3. Orientation change:

    onAttach() // presenter available
    onResume()
    setUserVisibleHint()
    

We only want the visibility hint to get to the presenter once, so this is how we do it:

@Nullable
@Override
public View onCreateView(LayoutInflater inflater, ViewGroup container, Bundle savedInstanceState) {
    View root = inflater.inflate(R.layout.fragment_list, container, false);
    setHasOptionsMenu(true);

    if (savedInstanceState != null) {
        lastOrientation = savedInstanceState.getInt(STATE_LAST_ORIENTATION,
              getResources().getConfiguration().orientation);
    } else {
        lastOrientation = getResources().getConfiguration().orientation;
    }

    return root;
}

@Override
public void onResume() {
    super.onResume();
    presenter.onResume();

    int orientation = getResources().getConfiguration().orientation;
    if (orientation == lastOrientation) {
        if (getUserVisibleHint()) {
            presenter.onViewBecomesVisible();
        }
    }
    lastOrientation = orientation;
}

@Override
public void setUserVisibleHint(boolean isVisibleToUser) {
    super.setUserVisibleHint(isVisibleToUser);
    if (presenter != null && isResumed() && isVisibleToUser) {
        presenter.onViewBecomesVisible();
    }
}

@Override public void onSaveInstanceState(Bundle outState) {
    super.onSaveInstanceState(outState);
    outState.putInt(STATE_LAST_ORIENTATION, lastOrientation);
}

Answer:

Detecting by focused view!

This works for me

public static boolean isFragmentVisible(Fragment fragment) {
    Activity activity = fragment.getActivity();
    View focusedView = fragment.getView().findFocus();
    return activity != null
            && focusedView != null
            && focusedView == activity.getWindow().getDecorView().findFocus();
}

Answer:

I encountered this problem when I was trying to get a timer to fire when the fragment in the viewpager was on-screen for the user to see.

The timer always started just before the fragment was seen by the user.
This is because the onResume() method in the fragment is called before we can see the fragment.

My solution was to do a check in the onResume() method. I wanted to call a certain method ‘foo()’ when fragment 8 was the view pagers current fragment.

@Override
public void onResume() {
    super.onResume();
    if(viewPager.getCurrentItem() == 8){
        foo();
        //Your code here. Executed when fragment is seen by user.
    }
}

Hope this helps. I’ve seen this problem pop up a lot. This seems to be the simplest solution I’ve seen. A lot of others are not compatible with lower APIs etc.

Answer:

I had the same issue. ViewPager executes other fragment life cycle events and I could not change that behavior. I wrote a simple pager using fragments and available animations.
SimplePager

Answer:

I used this and it worked !

mContext.getWindow().getDecorView().isShown() //boolean

Answer:

I support SectionsPagerAdapter with child fragments so after a lot of headache I finally got working version based on solutions from this topic:

public abstract class BaseFragment extends Fragment {

    private boolean visible;
    private boolean visibilityHintChanged;

    /**
     * Called when the visibility of the fragment changed
     */
    protected void onVisibilityChanged(View view, boolean visible) {

    }

    private void triggerVisibilityChangedIfNeeded(boolean visible) {
        if (this.visible == visible || getActivity() == null || getView() == null) {
            return;
        }
        this.visible = visible;
        onVisibilityChanged(getView(), visible);
    }

    @Override
    public void onCreate(@Nullable Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        if (!visibilityHintChanged) {
            setUserVisibleHint(false);
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void onResume() {
        super.onResume();
        if (getUserVisibleHint() && !isHidden()) {
            triggerVisibilityChangedIfNeeded(true);
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void onHiddenChanged(boolean hidden) {
        super.onHiddenChanged(hidden);
        triggerVisibilityChangedIfNeeded(!hidden);
    }

    @Override
    public void setUserVisibleHint(boolean isVisibleToUser) {
        super.setUserVisibleHint(isVisibleToUser);
        visibilityHintChanged = true;
        if (isVisibleToUser && isResumed() && !isHidden()) {
            triggerVisibilityChangedIfNeeded(true);
        } else if (!isVisibleToUser) {
            triggerVisibilityChangedIfNeeded(false);
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void onPause() {
        super.onPause();
        triggerVisibilityChangedIfNeeded(false);
    }

    @Override
    public void onStop() {
        super.onStop();
        triggerVisibilityChangedIfNeeded(false);
    }

    protected boolean isReallyVisible() {
        return visible;
    }
}

Answer:

Note that setUserVisibleHint(false) is not called on activity / fragment stop. You’ll still need to check start/stop to properly register/unregister any listeners/etc.

Also, you’ll get setUserVisibleHint(false) if your fragment starts in a non-visible state; you don’t want to unregister there since you’ve never registered before in that case.

@Override
public void onStart() {
    super.onStart();

    if (getUserVisibleHint()) {
        // register
    }
}

@Override
public void onStop() {
    if (getUserVisibleHint()) {
        // unregister
    }

    super.onStop();
}

@Override
public void setUserVisibleHint(boolean isVisibleToUser) {
    super.setUserVisibleHint(isVisibleToUser);

    if (isVisibleToUser && isResumed()) {
        // register

        if (!mHasBeenVisible) {
            mHasBeenVisible = true;
        }
    } else if (mHasBeenVisible){
        // unregister
    }
}

Answer:

A simple way of implementing that is checking whether user is logged in before going to the fragment.

In your MainActivity you may do something like this inside the onNavigationItemSelected method.

 case R.id.nav_profile_side:


                if (User_is_logged_in) {

                    fragmentManager.beginTransaction()
                            .replace(R.id.content_frame
                                    , new FragmentProfile())
                            .commit();
                }else {

                    ShowLoginOrRegisterDialog(fragmentManager);

                }

                break;

However, if you are using navigation drawer, the selection in the drawer will have changed to Profile though we have not gone to the ProfileFragment.

To reset the selection to the current selection run the code below

        navigationView.getMenu().getItem(0).setChecked(true);

Answer:

I overrode the Count method of the associated FragmentStatePagerAdapter and have it return the total count minus the number of pages to hide:

 public class MyAdapter : Android.Support.V13.App.FragmentStatePagerAdapter
 {   
     private List<Fragment> _fragments;

     public int TrimmedPages { get; set; }

     public MyAdapter(Android.App.FragmentManager fm) : base(fm) { }

     public MyAdapter(Android.App.FragmentManager fm, List<Android.App.Fragment> fragments) : base(fm)
     {
         _fragments = fragments;

         TrimmedPages = 0;
     }

     public override int Count
     {
         //get { return _fragments.Count; }
         get { return _fragments.Count - TrimmedPages; }
     }
 }

So, if there are 3 fragments initially added to the ViewPager, and only the first 2 should be shown until some condition is met, override the page count by setting TrimmedPages to 1 and it should only show the first two pages.

This works good for pages on the end, but wont really help for ones on the beginning or middle (though there are plenty of ways of doing this).