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android – Performance issue with Volley's DiskBasedCache

Posted by: admin April 23, 2020 Leave a comment

Questions:

In my Photo Collage app for Android I’m using Volley for loading images.
I’m using the DiskBasedCache (included with volley) with 50 mb storage to prevent re-downloading the same images multiple times.

Last time I checked the DiskBasedCache contained about 1000 cache entries.

When my app starts Volley calls mCache.initialize() and it will spend about 10 seconds (!) on my Galaxy S4 to do the following:

  1. List all files in cache folder
  2. Open each and every file and read the header section.

I find that reading 1000+ files at startup is not a very efficient way to load the cache index! 🙂

From volley/toolbox/DiskBasedCache.java:

@Override
public synchronized void initialize() {
    if (!mRootDirectory.exists()) {
        if (!mRootDirectory.mkdirs()) {
            VolleyLog.e("Unable to create cache dir %s", mRootDirectory.getAbsolutePath());
        }
        return;
    }

    File[] files = mRootDirectory.listFiles();
    if (files == null) {
        return;
    }
    for (File file : files) {
        FileInputStream fis = null;
        try {
            fis = new FileInputStream(file);
            CacheHeader entry = CacheHeader.readHeader(fis);
            entry.size = file.length();
            putEntry(entry.key, entry);
        } catch (IOException e) {
            if (file != null) {
               file.delete();
            }
        } finally {
            try {
                if (fis != null) {
                    fis.close();
                }
            } catch (IOException ignored) { }
        }
    }
}

I’m looking for a fast and scalable solution. Perhaps an alternative DiskBasedCache implementation or suggestions on how to improve the volley library.


Update: (2014-01-06)

Noticing that the Volley cache used a lot of small (1 byte) IO read/writes. I cloned DiskBasedCache.java and encapsulating all FileInputStreams and FileOutputStreams with BufferedInputStream and BufferedOutputStreams. I found that that this optimization gave me a 3-10 times speed up.

This modification has a low risks of bugs compared to writing a new disk cache with a central index file.


Update: (2014-01-10)

Here is new class BufferedDiskBasedCache.java that I’m using now.

package no.ludde.android.ds.android.volley;
/*
* Copyright (C) 2011 The Android Open Source Project
*
* Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
* you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
* You may obtain a copy of the License at
*
*      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
*
* Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
* distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
* WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
* See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
* limitations under the License.
*/
import android.os.SystemClock;
import com.android.volley.Cache;
import com.android.volley.VolleyLog;
import java.io.BufferedInputStream;
import java.io.BufferedOutputStream;
import java.io.EOFException;
import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileInputStream;
import java.io.FileOutputStream;
import java.io.FilterInputStream;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.io.OutputStream;
import java.util.Collections;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Iterator;
import java.util.LinkedHashMap;
import java.util.Map;
/**
* Cache implementation that caches files directly onto the hard disk in the specified
* directory. The default disk usage size is 5MB, but is configurable.
*/
public class BufferedDiskBasedCache implements Cache {
/** Map of the Key, CacheHeader pairs */
private final Map<String, CacheHeader> mEntries =
new LinkedHashMap<String, CacheHeader>(16, .75f, true);
/** Total amount of space currently used by the cache in bytes. */
private long mTotalSize = 0;
/** The root directory to use for the cache. */
private final File mRootDirectory;
/** The maximum size of the cache in bytes. */
private final int mMaxCacheSizeInBytes;
/** Default maximum disk usage in bytes. */
private static final int DEFAULT_DISK_USAGE_BYTES = 5 * 1024 * 1024;
/** High water mark percentage for the cache */
private static final float HYSTERESIS_FACTOR = 0.9f;
/** Magic number for current version of cache file format. */
private static final int CACHE_MAGIC = 0x20120504;
/**
* Constructs an instance of the DiskBasedCache at the specified directory.
* @param rootDirectory The root directory of the cache.
* @param maxCacheSizeInBytes The maximum size of the cache in bytes.
*/
public BufferedDiskBasedCache(File rootDirectory, int maxCacheSizeInBytes) {
mRootDirectory = rootDirectory;
mMaxCacheSizeInBytes = maxCacheSizeInBytes;
}
/**
* Constructs an instance of the DiskBasedCache at the specified directory using
* the default maximum cache size of 5MB.
* @param rootDirectory The root directory of the cache.
*/
public BufferedDiskBasedCache(File rootDirectory) {
this(rootDirectory, DEFAULT_DISK_USAGE_BYTES);
}
/**
* Clears the cache. Deletes all cached files from disk.
*/
@Override
public synchronized void clear() {
File[] files = mRootDirectory.listFiles();
if (files != null) {
for (File file : files) {
file.delete();
}
}
mEntries.clear();
mTotalSize = 0;
VolleyLog.d("Cache cleared.");
}
/**
* Returns the cache entry with the specified key if it exists, null otherwise. 
*/
@Override
public synchronized Entry get(String key) {
CacheHeader entry = mEntries.get(key);
// if the entry does not exist, return.
if (entry == null) {
return null;
}
File file = getFileForKey(key);
CountingInputStream cis = null;
try {
cis = new CountingInputStream(new BufferedInputStream(new FileInputStream(file)));
CacheHeader.readHeader(cis); // eat header
byte[] data = streamToBytes(cis, (int) (file.length() - cis.bytesRead));
return entry.toCacheEntry(data);
} catch (IOException e) {
VolleyLog.d("%s: %s", file.getAbsolutePath(), e.toString());
remove(key);
return null;
} finally {
if (cis != null) {
try {
cis.close();
} catch (IOException ioe) {
return null;
}
}
}
}
/**
* Initializes the DiskBasedCache by scanning for all files currently in the
* specified root directory. Creates the root directory if necessary.
*/
@Override
public synchronized void initialize() {
if (!mRootDirectory.exists()) {
if (!mRootDirectory.mkdirs()) {
VolleyLog.e("Unable to create cache dir %s", mRootDirectory.getAbsolutePath());
}
return;
}
File[] files = mRootDirectory.listFiles();
if (files == null) {
return;
}
for (File file : files) {
BufferedInputStream fis = null;
try {
fis = new BufferedInputStream(new FileInputStream(file));
CacheHeader entry = CacheHeader.readHeader(fis);
entry.size = file.length();
putEntry(entry.key, entry);
} catch (IOException e) {
if (file != null) {
file.delete();
}
} finally {
try {
if (fis != null) {
fis.close();
}
} catch (IOException ignored) { }
}
}
}
/**
* Invalidates an entry in the cache.
* @param key Cache key
* @param fullExpire True to fully expire the entry, false to soft expire
*/
@Override
public synchronized void invalidate(String key, boolean fullExpire) {
Entry entry = get(key);
if (entry != null) {
entry.softTtl = 0;
if (fullExpire) {
entry.ttl = 0;
}
put(key, entry);
}
}
/**
* Puts the entry with the specified key into the cache.
*/
@Override
public synchronized void put(String key, Entry entry) {
pruneIfNeeded(entry.data.length);
File file = getFileForKey(key);
try {
BufferedOutputStream fos = new BufferedOutputStream(new FileOutputStream(file));
CacheHeader e = new CacheHeader(key, entry);
e.writeHeader(fos);
fos.write(entry.data);
fos.close();
putEntry(key, e);
return;
} catch (IOException e) {
}
boolean deleted = file.delete();
if (!deleted) {
VolleyLog.d("Could not clean up file %s", file.getAbsolutePath());
}
}
/**
* Removes the specified key from the cache if it exists.
*/
@Override
public synchronized void remove(String key) {
boolean deleted = getFileForKey(key).delete();
removeEntry(key);
if (!deleted) {
VolleyLog.d("Could not delete cache entry for key=%s, filename=%s",
key, getFilenameForKey(key));
}
}
/**
* Creates a pseudo-unique filename for the specified cache key.
* @param key The key to generate a file name for.
* @return A pseudo-unique filename.
*/
private String getFilenameForKey(String key) {
int firstHalfLength = key.length() / 2;
String localFilename = String.valueOf(key.substring(0, firstHalfLength).hashCode());
localFilename += String.valueOf(key.substring(firstHalfLength).hashCode());
return localFilename;
}
/**
* Returns a file object for the given cache key.
*/
public File getFileForKey(String key) {
return new File(mRootDirectory, getFilenameForKey(key));
}
/**
* Prunes the cache to fit the amount of bytes specified.
* @param neededSpace The amount of bytes we are trying to fit into the cache.
*/
private void pruneIfNeeded(int neededSpace) {
if ((mTotalSize + neededSpace) < mMaxCacheSizeInBytes) {
return;
}
if (VolleyLog.DEBUG) {
VolleyLog.v("Pruning old cache entries.");
}
long before = mTotalSize;
int prunedFiles = 0;
long startTime = SystemClock.elapsedRealtime();
Iterator<Map.Entry<String, CacheHeader>> iterator = mEntries.entrySet().iterator();
while (iterator.hasNext()) {
Map.Entry<String, CacheHeader> entry = iterator.next();
CacheHeader e = entry.getValue();
boolean deleted = getFileForKey(e.key).delete();
if (deleted) {
mTotalSize -= e.size;
} else {
VolleyLog.d("Could not delete cache entry for key=%s, filename=%s",
e.key, getFilenameForKey(e.key));
}
iterator.remove();
prunedFiles++;
if ((mTotalSize + neededSpace) < mMaxCacheSizeInBytes * HYSTERESIS_FACTOR) {
break;
}
}
if (VolleyLog.DEBUG) {
VolleyLog.v("pruned %d files, %d bytes, %d ms",
prunedFiles, (mTotalSize - before), SystemClock.elapsedRealtime() - startTime);
}
}
/**
* Puts the entry with the specified key into the cache.
* @param key The key to identify the entry by.
* @param entry The entry to cache.
*/
private void putEntry(String key, CacheHeader entry) {
if (!mEntries.containsKey(key)) {
mTotalSize += entry.size;
} else {
CacheHeader oldEntry = mEntries.get(key);
mTotalSize += (entry.size - oldEntry.size);
}
mEntries.put(key, entry);
}
/**
* Removes the entry identified by 'key' from the cache.
*/
private void removeEntry(String key) {
CacheHeader entry = mEntries.get(key);
if (entry != null) {
mTotalSize -= entry.size;
mEntries.remove(key);
}
}
/**
* Reads the contents of an InputStream into a byte[].
* */
private static byte[] streamToBytes(InputStream in, int length) throws IOException {
byte[] bytes = new byte[length];
int count;
int pos = 0;
while (pos < length && ((count = in.read(bytes, pos, length - pos)) != -1)) {
pos += count;
}
if (pos != length) {
throw new IOException("Expected " + length + " bytes, read " + pos + " bytes");
}
return bytes;
}
/**
* Handles holding onto the cache headers for an entry.
*/
// Visible for testing.
static class CacheHeader {
/** The size of the data identified by this CacheHeader. (This is not
* serialized to disk. */
public long size;
/** The key that identifies the cache entry. */
public String key;
/** ETag for cache coherence. */
public String etag;
/** Date of this response as reported by the server. */
public long serverDate;
/** TTL for this record. */
public long ttl;
/** Soft TTL for this record. */
public long softTtl;
/** Headers from the response resulting in this cache entry. */
public Map<String, String> responseHeaders;
private CacheHeader() { }
/**
* Instantiates a new CacheHeader object
* @param key The key that identifies the cache entry
* @param entry The cache entry.
*/
public CacheHeader(String key, Entry entry) {
this.key = key;
this.size = entry.data.length;
this.etag = entry.etag;
this.serverDate = entry.serverDate;
this.ttl = entry.ttl;
this.softTtl = entry.softTtl;
this.responseHeaders = entry.responseHeaders;
}
/**
* Reads the header off of an InputStream and returns a CacheHeader object.
* @param is The InputStream to read from.
* @throws IOException
*/
public static CacheHeader readHeader(InputStream is) throws IOException {
CacheHeader entry = new CacheHeader();
int magic = readInt(is);
if (magic != CACHE_MAGIC) {
// don't bother deleting, it'll get pruned eventually
throw new IOException();
}
entry.key = readString(is);
entry.etag = readString(is);
if (entry.etag.equals("")) {
entry.etag = null;
}
entry.serverDate = readLong(is);
entry.ttl = readLong(is);
entry.softTtl = readLong(is);
entry.responseHeaders = readStringStringMap(is);
return entry;
}
/**
* Creates a cache entry for the specified data.
*/
public Entry toCacheEntry(byte[] data) {
Entry e = new Entry();
e.data = data;
e.etag = etag;
e.serverDate = serverDate;
e.ttl = ttl;
e.softTtl = softTtl;
e.responseHeaders = responseHeaders;
return e;
}
/**
* Writes the contents of this CacheHeader to the specified OutputStream.
*/
public boolean writeHeader(OutputStream os) {
try {
writeInt(os, CACHE_MAGIC);
writeString(os, key);
writeString(os, etag == null ? "" : etag);
writeLong(os, serverDate);
writeLong(os, ttl);
writeLong(os, softTtl);
writeStringStringMap(responseHeaders, os);
os.flush();
return true;
} catch (IOException e) {
VolleyLog.d("%s", e.toString());
return false;
}
}
}
private static class CountingInputStream extends FilterInputStream {
private int bytesRead = 0;
private CountingInputStream(InputStream in) {
super(in);
}
@Override
public int read() throws IOException {
int result = super.read();
if (result != -1) {
bytesRead++;
}
return result;
}
@Override
public int read(byte[] buffer, int offset, int count) throws IOException {
int result = super.read(buffer, offset, count);
if (result != -1) {
bytesRead += result;
}
return result;
}
}
/*
* Homebrewed simple serialization system used for reading and writing cache
* headers on disk. Once upon a time, this used the standard Java
* Object{Input,Output}Stream, but the default implementation relies heavily
* on reflection (even for standard types) and generates a ton of garbage.
*/
/**
* Simple wrapper around {@link InputStream#read()} that throws EOFException
* instead of returning -1.
*/
private static int read(InputStream is) throws IOException {
int b = is.read();
if (b == -1) {
throw new EOFException();
}
return b;
}
static void writeInt(OutputStream os, int n) throws IOException {
os.write((n >> 0) & 0xff);
os.write((n >> 8) & 0xff);
os.write((n >> 16) & 0xff);
os.write((n >> 24) & 0xff);
}
static int readInt(InputStream is) throws IOException {
int n = 0;
n |= (read(is) << 0);
n |= (read(is) << 8);
n |= (read(is) << 16);
n |= (read(is) << 24);
return n;
}
static void writeLong(OutputStream os, long n) throws IOException {
os.write((byte)(n >>> 0));
os.write((byte)(n >>> 8));
os.write((byte)(n >>> 16));
os.write((byte)(n >>> 24));
os.write((byte)(n >>> 32));
os.write((byte)(n >>> 40));
os.write((byte)(n >>> 48));
os.write((byte)(n >>> 56));
}
static long readLong(InputStream is) throws IOException {
long n = 0;
n |= ((read(is) & 0xFFL) << 0);
n |= ((read(is) & 0xFFL) << 8);
n |= ((read(is) & 0xFFL) << 16);
n |= ((read(is) & 0xFFL) << 24);
n |= ((read(is) & 0xFFL) << 32);
n |= ((read(is) & 0xFFL) << 40);
n |= ((read(is) & 0xFFL) << 48);
n |= ((read(is) & 0xFFL) << 56);
return n;
}
static void writeString(OutputStream os, String s) throws IOException {
byte[] b = s.getBytes("UTF-8");
writeLong(os, b.length);
os.write(b, 0, b.length);
}
static String readString(InputStream is) throws IOException {
int n = (int) readLong(is);
byte[] b = streamToBytes(is, n);
return new String(b, "UTF-8");
}
static void writeStringStringMap(Map<String, String> map, OutputStream os) throws IOException {
if (map != null) {
writeInt(os, map.size());
for (Map.Entry<String, String> entry : map.entrySet()) {
writeString(os, entry.getKey());
writeString(os, entry.getValue());
}
} else {
writeInt(os, 0);
}
}
static Map<String, String> readStringStringMap(InputStream is) throws IOException {
int size = readInt(is);
Map<String, String> result = (size == 0)
? Collections.<String, String>emptyMap()
: new HashMap<String, String>(size);
for (int i = 0; i < size; i++) {
String key = readString(is).intern();
String value = readString(is).intern();
result.put(key, value);
}
return result;
}
}
How to&Answers:

Yes, the way DiskBasedCache works it needs to open all the files in initialize(). Which is simply…. not a good idea 🙁

You need to make a different implementation that doesent open all the files at startup.

Take a copy of DiskBasedCache and change initialize() to

 @Override public synchronized void initialize() { if (!mRootDirectory.exists()) { if (!mRootDirectory.mkdirs()) { VolleyLog.e("Unable to create cache dir %s", mRootDirectory.getAbsolutePath()); } } } 

And change get() so it makes an additional check for if the file exists on the file system, like

 @Override public synchronized Entry get(String key) { CacheHeader entry = mEntries.get(key); File file = getFileForKey(key); if (entry == null && !file.exists()) { // EXTRA CHECK // if the entry does not exist, return. VolleyLog.d("DrVolleyDiskBasedCache miss for " + key); return null; } ... 

I use this approach in https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=dk.dr.radio and it works fine – its robustness have been tested by ~300000 users 🙂

You can download a full version of the file from https://code.google.com/p/dr-radio-android/source/browse/trunk/DRRadiov3/src/dk/dr/radio/net/volley/DrDiskBasedCache.java (you’ll have to delete some DR Radio specific stuff)

Answer:

In the streamToBytes(), first it will new bytes by the cache file length, does your cache file was too large than application maximum heap size ?

private static byte[] streamToBytes(InputStream in, int length) throws IOException { byte[] bytes = new byte[length]; ... } public synchronized Entry get(String key) { CacheHeader entry = mEntries.get(key); File file = getFileForKey(key); byte[] data = streamToBytes(..., file.length()); }

If you want to clear the cache, you could keep the DiskBasedCache reference, after clear time’s came, use ClearCacheRequest and pass that cache instance in :

File cacheDir = new File(context.getCacheDir(), DEFAULT_CACHE_DIR); DiskBasedCache cache = new DiskBasedCache(cacheDir); RequestQueue queue = new RequestQueue(cache, network); queue.start();
// clear all volley caches. queue.add(new ClearCacheRequest(cache, null));

this way will clear all caches, so I suggest you use it carefully. of course, you can doing conditional check, just iterating the cacheDir files, estimate which was too large then remove it.

for (File cacheFile : cacheDir.listFiles()) { if (cacheFile.isFile() && cacheFile.length() > 10000000) cacheFile.delete(); }

Volley wasn’t design as a big data cache solution, it’s common request cache, don’t storing large data anytime.

————- Update at 2014-07-17 ————-

In fact, clear all caches is final way, also isn’t wise way, we should suppressing these large request use cache when we sure it would be, and if not sure? we still can determine the response data size whether large or not, then call setShouldCache(false) to disable it.

public class TheRequest extends Request { @Override protected Response<String> parseNetworkResponse(NetworkResponse response) { // if response data was too large, disable caching is still time. if (response.data.length > 10000) setShouldCache(false); ... } }

Answer:

My initial thought was to use the DiskLruCache written by Jake Wharton by writing a com.android.volley.Cache wrapper over it.

But I finally implemented a singleton pattern for the Volley, combined with the cache creation in an AsyncTask called from the Application context

public static synchronized VolleyClient getInstance(Context context) { if (mInstance == null) { mInstance = new VolleyClient(context); } return mInstance; } private VolleyClient(Context context) { this.context = context; VolleyCacheInitializer volleyCacheInitializer = new VolleyCacheInitializer(); volleyCacheInitializer.execute(); } private class VolleyCacheInitializer extends AsyncTask<Void, Void, Boolean> { @Override protected Boolean doInBackground(Void... params) { // Instantiate the cache with 50MB Cache Size Cache diskBasedCache = new DiskBasedCache(context.getCacheDir(), 50 * 1024 * 1024); // Instantiate the RequestQueue with the cache and network. mRequestQueue = new RequestQueue(diskBasedCache, network); // Start the queue which calls the DiskBasedCache.initialize() mRequestQueue.start(); return true; } @Override protected void onPostExecute(Boolean aBoolean) { super.onPostExecute(aBoolean); if(aBoolean) Log.d(TAG, "Volley request queue initialized"); else Log.d(TAG, "Volley request queue initialization failed"); } } 

Inside MyApplication class

@Override public void onCreate() { super.onCreate(); // Initialize an application level volley request queue VolleyClient volleyHttpClient = VolleyClient.getInstance(this); }