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AngularJS routing without the hash '#'

Posted by: admin November 2, 2017 Leave a comment

Questions:

I’m learning AngularJS and there’s one thing that really annoys me.

I use $routeProvider to declare routing rules for my application:

$routeProvider.when('/test', {
  controller: TestCtrl,
  templateUrl: 'views/test.html'
})
.otherwise({ redirectTo: '/test' });

but when I navigate to my app in browser I see app/#/test instead of app/test.

So my question is why AngularJS adds this hash # to urls? Is there any possibility to avoid it?

Answers:

In fact you need the # (hashtag) for non HTML5 browsers.

Otherwise they will just do an HTTP call to the server at the mentioned href.
The # is an old browser shortcircuit which doesn’t fire the request, which allows many js frameworks to build their own clientside rerouting on top of that.

You can use $locationProvider.html5Mode(true) to tell angular to use HTML5 strategy if available.

Here the list of browser that support HTML5 strategy: http://caniuse.com/#feat=history

Questions:
Answers:

If you enabled html5mode as others have said, and create an .htaccess file with the following contents (adjust for your needs):

RewriteEngine   On
RewriteBase     /
RewriteCond     %{REQUEST_URI} !^(/index\.php|/img|/js|/css|/robots\.txt|/favicon\.ico)
RewriteCond     %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
RewriteCond     %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
RewriteRule     ./index.html [L]

Users will be directed to the your app when they enter a proper route, and your app will read the route and bring them to the correct “page” within it.

EDIT: Just make sure not to have any file or directory names conflict with your routes.

Questions:
Answers:

Lets write answer that looks simple and short

In Router at end add html5Mode(true);

app.config(function($routeProvider,$locationProvider) {

    $routeProvider.when('/home', {
        templateUrl:'/html/home.html'
    });

    $locationProvider.html5Mode(true);
})

In html head add base tag

<html>
<head>
    <meta charset="utf-8">    
    <base href="/">
</head>

thanks To @plus– for detailing the above answer

Questions:
Answers:

try

$locationProvider.html5Mode(true)

More info at
$locationProvider

Using $location

Questions:
Answers:

The following information is from:
https://scotch.io/quick-tips/pretty-urls-in-angularjs-removing-the-hashtag

It is very easy to get clean URLs and remove the hashtag from the URL in Angular.
By default, AngularJS will route URLs with a hashtag
For Example:

There are 2 things that need to be done.

  • Configuring $locationProvider

  • Setting our base for relative links

  • $location Service

In Angular, the $location service parses the URL in the address bar and makes changes to your application and vice versa.

I would highly recommend reading through the official Angular $location docs to get a feel for the location service and what it provides.

https://docs.angularjs.org/api/ng/service/$location

$locationProvider and html5Mode

  • We will use the $locationProvider module and set html5Mode to true.
  • We will do this when defining your Angular application and
    configuring your routes.

    angular.module('noHash', [])
    
    .config(function($routeProvider, $locationProvider) {
    
       $routeProvider
           .when('/', {
               templateUrl : 'partials/home.html',
               controller : mainController
           })
           .when('/about', {
               templateUrl : 'partials/about.html',
               controller : mainController
           })
           .when('/contact', {
               templateUrl : 'partials/contact.html',
               controller : mainController
           });
    
       // use the HTML5 History API
       $locationProvider.html5Mode(true); });
    

What is the HTML5 History API? It is a standardized way to manipulate the browser history using a script. This lets Angular change the routing and URLs of our pages without refreshing the page. For more information on this, here is a good HTML5 History API Article:

http://diveintohtml5.info/history.html

Setting For Relative Links

  • To link around your application using relative links, you will need
    to set the <base> in the <head> of your document. This may be in the
    root index.html file of your Angular app. Find the <base> tag, and
    set it to the root URL you’d like for your app.

For example: <base href="/">

  • There are plenty of other ways to configure this, and the HTML5 mode
    set to true should automatically resolve relative links. If your root
    of your application is different than the url (for instance /my-base,
    then use that as your base.

Fallback for Older Browsers

  • The $location service will automatically fallback to the hashbang
    method for browsers that do not support the HTML5 History API.
  • This happens transparently to you and you won’t have to configure
    anything for it to work. From the Angular $location docs, you can see
    the fallback method and how it works.

In Conclusion

  • This is a simple way to get pretty URLs and remove the hashtag in
    your Angular application. Have fun making those super clean and super
    fast Angular apps!
Questions:
Answers:

If you are wanting to configure this locally on OS X 10.8 serving Angular with Apache then you might find the following in your .htaccess file helps:

<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
    Options +FollowSymlinks
    RewriteEngine On
    RewriteBase /~yourusername/appname/public/
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !.*\.(css|js|html|png|jpg|jpeg|gif|txt)
    RewriteRule (.*) index.html [L]
</IfModule>

Options +FollowSymlinks if not set may give you a forbidden error in the logs like so:

Options FollowSymLinks or SymLinksIfOwnerMatch is off which implies that RewriteRule directive is forbidden

Rewrite base is required otherwise requests will be resolved to your server root which locally by default is not your project directory unless you have specifically configured your vhosts, so you need to set the path so that the request finds your project root directory. For example on my machine I have a /Users/me/Sites directory where I keep all my projects. Like the old OS X set up.

The next two lines effectively say if the path is not a directory or a file, so you need to make sure you have no files or directories the same as your app route paths.

The next condition says if request not ending with file extensions specified so add what you need there

And the [L] last one is saying to serve the index.html file – your app for all other requests.

If you still have problems then check the apache log, it will probably give you useful hints:

/private/var/log/apache2/error_log

Questions:
Answers:

As has been mentioned in above answers the steps are-

Add <base href="/"> to index.html
Enable html5mode $location.html5Mode(true) in app.js.

With this the application will work good. But only in the scenarios when you navigate from the index.html to other pages. For example my base page is-
www.javainuse.com. If I click on link java it will correctly navigate to
www.javainuse.com/java.

However if i directly go to www.javainuse.com/java will get page no found error.

To resolve this we have to use url rewriting.
Dot net requires URL rewriting for IIS.

If you are using tomcat then URL rewriting will have to be done using Tuckey.
Can get more information on URL rewriting here

Questions:
Answers:

You could also use the below code to redirect to the main page (home):

{ path: '', redirectTo: 'home', pathMatch: 'full'}

After specifying your redirect as above, you can redirect the other pages, for example:

{ path: 'add-new-registration', component: AddNewRegistrationComponent},
{ path: 'view-registration', component: ViewRegistrationComponent},
{ path: 'home', component: HomeComponent}

Questions:
Answers:

Using HTML5 mode requires URL rewriting on server side, basically you have to rewrite all your links to entry point of your application (e.g. index.html). Requiring a <base> tag is also important for this case, as it allows AngularJS to differentiate between the part of the url that is the application base and the path that should be handled by the application. For more information, see AngularJS Developer Guide – Using $location HTML5 mode Server Side.