Home » Python » Generate a heatmap in MatPlotLib using a scatter data set

# Generate a heatmap in MatPlotLib using a scatter data set

Questions:

I have a set of X,Y data points (about 10k) that are easy to plot as a scatter plot but that I would like to represent as a heatmap.

I looked through the examples in MatPlotLib and they all seem to already start with heatmap cell values to generate the image.

Is there a method that converts a bunch of x,y, all different, to a heatmap (where zones with higher frequency of x,y would be “warmer”)?

If you don’t want hexagons, you can use numpy’s `histogram2d` function:

``````import numpy as np
import numpy.random
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

# Generate some test data
x = np.random.randn(8873)
y = np.random.randn(8873)

heatmap, xedges, yedges = np.histogram2d(x, y, bins=50)
extent = [xedges[0], xedges[-1], yedges[0], yedges[-1]]

plt.clf()
plt.imshow(heatmap.T, extent=extent, origin='lower')
plt.show()
``````

This makes a 50×50 heatmap. If you want, say, 512×384, you can put `bins=(512, 384)` in the call to `histogram2d`.

Example:

Questions:

In Matplotlib lexicon, i think you want a hexbin plot.

If you’re not familiar with this type of plot, it’s just a bivariate histogram in which the xy-plane is tessellated by a regular grid of hexagons.

So from a histogram, you can just count the number of points falling in each hexagon, discretiize the plotting region as a set of windows, assign each point to one of these windows; finally, map the windows onto a color array, and you’ve got a hexbin diagram.

Though less commonly used than e.g., circles, or squares, that hexagons are a better choice for the geometry of the binning container is intuitive:

• hexagons have nearest-neighbor symmetry (e.g., square bins don’t,
e.g., the distance from a point on a square’s border to a point
inside that square is not everywhere equal) and

• hexagon is the highest n-polygon that gives regular plane
tessellation
(i.e., you can safely re-model your kitchen floor with hexagonal-shaped tiles because you won’t have any void space between the tiles when you are finished–not true for all other higher-n, n >= 7, polygons).

(Matplotlib uses the term hexbin plot; so do (AFAIK) all of the plotting libraries for R; still i don’t know if this is the generally accepted term for plots of this type, though i suspect it’s likely given that hexbin is short for hexagonal binning, which is describes the essential step in preparing the data for display.)

``````from matplotlib import pyplot as PLT
from matplotlib import cm as CM
from matplotlib import mlab as ML
import numpy as NP

n = 1e5
x = y = NP.linspace(-5, 5, 100)
X, Y = NP.meshgrid(x, y)
Z1 = ML.bivariate_normal(X, Y, 2, 2, 0, 0)
Z2 = ML.bivariate_normal(X, Y, 4, 1, 1, 1)
ZD = Z2 - Z1
x = X.ravel()
y = Y.ravel()
z = ZD.ravel()
gridsize=30
PLT.subplot(111)

# if 'bins=None', then color of each hexagon corresponds directly to its count
# 'C' is optional--it maps values to x-y coordinates; if 'C' is None (default) then
# the result is a pure 2D histogram

PLT.hexbin(x, y, C=z, gridsize=gridsize, cmap=CM.jet, bins=None)
PLT.axis([x.min(), x.max(), y.min(), y.max()])

cb = PLT.colorbar()
cb.set_label('mean value')
PLT.show()
``````

Questions:

Instead of using np.hist2d, which in general produces quite ugly histograms, I would like to recycle py-sphviewer, a python package for rendering particle simulations using an adaptive smoothing kernel and that can be easily installed from pip (see webpage documentation). Consider the following code, which is based on the example:

``````import numpy as np
import numpy.random
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import sphviewer as sph

def myplot(x, y, nb=32, xsize=500, ysize=500):
xmin = np.min(x)
xmax = np.max(x)
ymin = np.min(y)
ymax = np.max(y)

x0 = (xmin+xmax)/2.
y0 = (ymin+ymax)/2.

pos = np.zeros([3, len(x)])
pos[0,:] = x
pos[1,:] = y
w = np.ones(len(x))

P = sph.Particles(pos, w, nb=nb)
S = sph.Scene(P)
S.update_camera(r='infinity', x=x0, y=y0, z=0,
xsize=xsize, ysize=ysize)
R = sph.Render(S)
R.set_logscale()
img = R.get_image()
extent = R.get_extent()
for i, j in zip(xrange(4), [x0,x0,y0,y0]):
extent[i] += j
print extent
return img, extent

fig = plt.figure(1, figsize=(10,10))

# Generate some test data
x = np.random.randn(1000)
y = np.random.randn(1000)

#Plotting a regular scatter plot
ax1.plot(x,y,'k.', markersize=5)
ax1.set_xlim(-3,3)
ax1.set_ylim(-3,3)

heatmap_16, extent_16 = myplot(x,y, nb=16)
heatmap_32, extent_32 = myplot(x,y, nb=32)
heatmap_64, extent_64 = myplot(x,y, nb=64)

ax2.imshow(heatmap_16, extent=extent_16, origin='lower', aspect='auto')
ax2.set_title("Smoothing over 16 neighbors")

ax3.imshow(heatmap_32, extent=extent_32, origin='lower', aspect='auto')
ax3.set_title("Smoothing over 32 neighbors")

#Make the heatmap using a smoothing over 64 neighbors
ax4.imshow(heatmap_64, extent=extent_64, origin='lower', aspect='auto')
ax4.set_title("Smoothing over 64 neighbors")

plt.show()
``````

which produces the following image:

As you see, the images look pretty nice, and we are able to identify different substructures on it. These images are constructed spreading a given weight for every point within a certain domain, defined by the smoothing length, which in turns is given by the distance to the closer nb neighbor (I’ve chosen 16, 32 and 64 for the examples). So, higher density regions typically are spread over smaller regions compared to lower density regions.

The function myplot is just a very simple function that I’ve written in order to give the x,y data to py-sphviewer to do the magic.

Questions:

If you are using 1.2.x

```x = randn(100000)
y = randn(100000)
hist2d(x,y,bins=100);
```

Questions:

Seaborn now has the jointplot function which should work nicely here:

``````import numpy as np
import seaborn as sns
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

# Generate some test data
x = np.random.randn(8873)
y = np.random.randn(8873)

sns.jointplot(x=x, y=y, kind='hex')
plt.show()
``````

Questions:
Make a 2-dimensional array that corresponds to the cells in your final image, called say `heatmap_cells` and instantiate it as all zeroes.
Choose two scaling factors that define the difference between each array element in real units, for each dimension, say `x_scale` and `y_scale`. Choose these such that all your datapoints will fall within the bounds of the heatmap array.
For each raw datapoint with `x_value` and `y_value`:
`heatmap_cells[floor(x_value/x_scale),floor(y_value/y_scale)]+=1`