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How can I create Min stl priority_queue?

Posted by: admin November 28, 2017 Leave a comment

Questions:

The default stl priority queue is a Max one (Top function returns the largest element).

Say, for simplicity, that it is a priority queue of int values.

Answers:

Use std::greater as the comparison function:

std::priority_queue<int, std::vector<int>, std::greater<int> > my_min_heap;

Questions:
Answers:

One way would be to define a suitable comparator with which to operate on the ordinary priority queue, such that its priority gets reversed:

 #include <iostream>  
 #include <queue>  
 using namespace std;  

 struct compare  
 {  
   bool operator()(const int& l, const int& r)  
   {  
       return l > r;  
   }  
 };  

 int main()  
 {  
     priority_queue<int,vector<int>, compare > pq;  

     pq.push(3);  
     pq.push(5);  
     pq.push(1);  
     pq.push(8);  
     while ( !pq.empty() )  
     {  
         cout << pq.top() << endl;  
         pq.pop();  
     }  
     cin.get();  
 }

Which would output 1, 3, 5, 8 respectively.

Some examples of using priority queues via STL and Sedgewick’s implementations are given here.

Questions:
Answers:

The third template parameter for priority_queue is the comparator. Set it to use greater.

e.g.

std::priority_queue<int, std::vector<int>, std::greater<int> > max_queue;

You’ll need #include <functional> for std::greater.

Questions:
Answers:

In C++11 you could also create an alias for convenience:

template<class T> using min_heap = priority_queue<T, std::vector<T>, std::greater<T>>;

And use it like this:

min_heap<int> my_heap;

Questions:
Answers:

You can do it in multiple ways:
1. Using greater as comparison function :

 #include <bits/stdc++.h>

using namespace std;

int main()
{
    priority_queue<int,vector<int>,greater<int> >pq;
    pq.push(1);
    pq.push(2);
    pq.push(3);

    while(!pq.empty())
    {
        int r = pq.top();
        pq.pop();
        cout<<r<< " ";
    }
    return 0;
}

2. Inserting value by changing their sign (using minus (-) for positive number and using plus (+) for negative number :

int main()
{
    priority_queue<int>pq2;
    pq2.push(-1); //for +1
    pq2.push(-2); //for +2
    pq2.push(-3); //for +3
    pq2.push(4);  //for -4

    while(!pq2.empty())
    {
        int r = pq2.top();
        pq2.pop();
        cout<<-r<<" ";
    }

    return 0;
}

3. Using custom structure or class :

struct compare
{
    bool operator()(const int & a, const int & b)
    {
        return a>b;
    }
};

int main()
{

    priority_queue<int,vector<int>,compare> pq;
    pq.push(1);
    pq.push(2);
    pq.push(3);

    while(!pq.empty())
    {
        int r = pq.top();
        pq.pop();
        cout<<r<<" ";
    }

    return 0;
}

4. Using custom structure or class you can use priority_queue in any order.
Suppose, we want to sort people in descending order according to their salary and if tie then according to their age.

    struct people
    {
        int age,salary;

    };
    struct compare{
    bool operator()(const people & a, const people & b)
        {
            if(a.salary==b.salary)
            {
                return a.age>b.age;
            }
            else
            {
                return a.salary>b.salary;
            }

    }
    };
    int main()
    {

        priority_queue<people,vector<people>,compare> pq;
        people person1,person2,person3;
        person1.salary=100;
        person1.age = 50;
        person2.salary=80;
        person2.age = 40;
        person3.salary = 100;
        person3.age=40;


        pq.push(person1);
        pq.push(person2);
        pq.push(person3);

        while(!pq.empty())
        {
            people r = pq.top();
            pq.pop();
            cout<<r.salary<<" "<<r.age<<endl;
    }
  1. Same result can be obtained by operator overloading :

    struct people
    {
    int age,salary;
    
    bool operator< (const people & p)const
    {
        if(salary==p.salary)
        {
            return age>p.age;
        }
        else
        {
            return salary>p.salary;
        }
    }};
    

    In main function :

    priority_queue<people> pq;
    people person1,person2,person3;
    person1.salary=100;
    person1.age = 50;
    person2.salary=80;
    person2.age = 40;
    person3.salary = 100;
    person3.age=40;
    
    
    pq.push(person1);
    pq.push(person2);
    pq.push(person3);
    
    while(!pq.empty())
    {
        people r = pq.top();
        pq.pop();
        cout<<r.salary<<" "<<r.age<<endl;
    }
    
Questions:
Answers:

One Way to solve this problem is, push the negative of each element in the priority_queue so the largest element will become the smallest element. At the time of making pop operation, take the negation of each element.

#include<bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;

int main(){
    priority_queue<int> pq;
    int i;

// push the negative of each element in priority_queue, so the largest number will become the smallest number

    for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++)
    {
        cin>>j;
        pq.push(j*-1);
    }

    for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++)
    {
        cout<<(-1)*pq.top()<<endl;
        pq.pop();
    }
}

Questions:
Answers:

Based on above all answers I created an example code for how to create priority queue. Note: It works C++11 and above compilers

#include <iostream>
#include <vector>
#include <iomanip>
#include <queue>

using namespace std;

// template for prirority Q
template<class T> using min_heap = priority_queue<T, std::vector<T>, std::greater<T>>;
template<class T> using max_heap = priority_queue<T, std::vector<T>>;

const int RANGE = 1000;

vector<int> get_sample_data(int size);

int main(){
  int n;
  cout << "Enter number of elements N = " ; cin >> n;
  vector<int> dataset = get_sample_data(n);

  max_heap<int> max_pq;
  min_heap<int> min_pq;

  // Push data to Priority Queue
  for(int i: dataset){
    max_pq.push(i);
    min_pq.push(i);
  }

  while(!max_pq.empty() && !min_pq.empty()){
    cout << setw(10) << min_pq.top()<< " | " << max_pq.top() << endl;
    min_pq.pop();
    max_pq.pop();
  }

}


vector<int> get_sample_data(int size){
  srand(time(NULL));
  vector<int> dataset;
  for(int i=0; i<size; i++){
    dataset.push_back(rand()%RANGE);
  }
  return dataset;
}

Output of Above code

Enter number of elements N = 4

        33 | 535
        49 | 411
       411 | 49
       535 | 33

Questions:
Answers:

We can do this using several ways.

Using template comparator parameter

    int main() 
    {
      priority_queue<int, vector<int>, greater<int> > pq;

      pq.push(40);
      pq.push(320);
      pq.push(42);
      pq.push(65);
      pq.push(12);

      cout<<pq.top()<<endl;
      return 0;
    }

Using used defined compartor class

     struct comp
     {
        bool operator () (int lhs, int rhs)
        {
           return lhs > rhs;
        }
     };

    int main()
    {
       priority_queue<int, vector<int>, comp> pq;

       pq.push(40);
       pq.push(320);
       pq.push(42);
       pq.push(65);
       pq.push(12);

       cout<<pq.top()<<endl;

       return 0;
    }

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