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How do I call one constructor from another in Java?

Posted by: admin November 2, 2017 Leave a comment

Questions:

Is it possible to call a constructor from another (within the same class, not from a subclass)? If yes how? And what could be the best way to call another constructor (if there are several ways to do it)?

Answers:

Yes, it is possible:

public class Foo {
    private int x;

    public Foo() {
        this(1);
    }

    public Foo(int x) {
        this.x = x;
    }
}

To chain to a particular superclass constructor instead of one in the same class, use super instead of this. Note that you can only chain to one constructor, and it has to be the first statement in your constructor body.

See also this related question, which is about C# but where the same principles apply.

Questions:
Answers:

Using this(args). The preferred pattern is to work from the smallest constructor to the largest.

public class Cons {

 public Cons() {
  // A no arguments constructor that sends default values to the largest
  this(madeUpArg1Value,madeUpArg2Value,madeUpArg3Value);
 }

 public Cons(int arg1, int arg2) {
  // An example of a partial constructor that uses the passed in arguments
  // and sends a hidden default value to the largest
  this(arg1,arg2, madeUpArg3Value);
 }

 // Largest constructor that does the work
 public Cons(int arg1, int arg2, int arg3) {
  this.arg1 = arg1;
  this.arg2 = arg2;
  this.arg3 = arg3;
 }
}

You can also use a more recently advocated approach of valueOf or just “of”:

public class Cons {
 public static Cons newCons(int arg1,...) {
  // This function is commonly called valueOf, like Integer.valueOf(..)
  // More recently called "of", like EnumSet.of(..)
  Cons c = new Cons(...);
  c.setArg1(....);
  return c;
 }
} 

To call a super class, use super(asdf). The call to super must be the first call in the constructor or you will get a compiler error.

Questions:
Answers:
[Note: I just want to add one aspect, which I did not see in the other answers: how to overcome limitations of the requirement that this() has to be on the first line).]

In Java another constructor of the same class can be called from a constructor via this(). Note however that this has to be on the first line.

public class MyClass {

  public MyClass(double argument1, double argument2) {
    this(argument1, argument2, 0.0);
  }

  public MyClass(double argument1, double argument2, double argument3) {
    this.argument1 = argument1;
    this.argument2 = argument2;
    this.argument3 = argument3;
  }
}

That this has to appear on the first line looks like a big limitation, but you can construct the arguments of other constructors via static methods. For example:

public class MyClass {

  public MyClass(double argument1, double argument2) {
    this(argument1, argument2, getDefaultArg3(argument1, argument2));
  }

  public MyClass(double argument1, double argument2, double argument3) {
    this.argument1 = argument1;
    this.argument2 = argument2;
    this.argument3 = argument3;
  }

  private static double getDefaultArg3(double argument1, double argument2) {
    double argument3 = 0;

    // Calculate argument3 here if you like.

    return argument3;

  }

}

Questions:
Answers:

When I need to call another constructor from inside the code (not on the first line), I usually use a helper method like this:

class MyClass {
   int field;


   MyClass() {
      init(0);
   } 
   MyClass(int value) {
      if (value<0) {
          init(0);
      } 
      else { 
          init(value);
      }
   }
   void init(int x) {
      field = x;
   }
}

But most often I try to do it the other way around by calling the more complex constructors from the simpler ones on the first line, to the extent possible. For the above example

class MyClass {
   int field;

   MyClass(int value) {
      if (value<0)
         field = 0;
      else
         field = value;
   }
   MyClass() {
      this(0);
   }
}

Questions:
Answers:

Within a constructor, you can use the this keyword to invoke another constructor in the same class. Doing so is called an explicit constructor invocation.

Here’s another Rectangle class, with a different implementation from the one in the Objects section.

public class Rectangle {
    private int x, y;
    private int width, height;

    public Rectangle() {
        this(1, 1);
    }
    public Rectangle(int width, int height) {
        this( 0,0,width, height);
    }
    public Rectangle(int x, int y, int width, int height) {
        this.x = x;
        this.y = y;
        this.width = width;
        this.height = height;
    }

}

This class contains a set of constructors. Each constructor initializes some or all of the rectangle’s member variables.

Questions:
Answers:

As everybody already have said, you use this(…), which is called an explicit constructor invocation.

However, keep in mind that within such an explicit constructor invocation statement you may not refer to

  • any instance variables or
  • any instance methods or
  • any inner classes declared in this class or any superclass, or
  • this or
  • super.

As stated in JLS (§8.8.7.1).

Questions:
Answers:

You can a constructor from another constructor of same class by using “this” keyword.
Example –

class This1
{
    This1()
    {
        this("Hello");
        System.out.println("Default constructor..");
    }
    This1(int a)
    {
        this();
        System.out.println("int as arg constructor.."); 
    }
    This1(String s)
    {
        System.out.println("string as arg constructor..");  
    }

    public static void main(String args[])
    {
        new This1(100);
    }
}

Output –
string as arg constructor..
Default constructor..
int as arg constructor..

Questions:
Answers:

I tel you an easy way

There are two types of constructors:

  1. Default constructor
  2. Parameterized constructor

I will explain in one Example

class ConstructorDemo 
{
      ConstructorDemo()//Default Constructor
      {
         System.out.println("D.constructor ");
      }

      ConstructorDemo(int k)//Parameterized constructor
      {
         this();//-------------(1)
         System.out.println("P.Constructor ="+k);       
      }

      public static void main(String[] args) 
      {
         //this(); error because "must be first statement in constructor
         new ConstructorDemo();//-------(2)
         ConstructorDemo g=new ConstructorDemo(3);---(3)    
       }
   }                  

In the above example I showed 3 types of calling

  1. this() call to this must be first statement in constructor
  2. This is Name less Object. this is automatically calls the default constructor.
    3.This calls the Parameterized constructor.

Note:
this must be first statement in constructor.

Questions:
Answers:

Yes it is possible to call on constructor from another. But there is a rule to it. If a call is made from one constructor to another, then

that new constructor call must be the first statement in the current constructor

public class Product {
     private int productId;
     private String productName;
     private double productPrice;
     private String category;

    public Product(int id, String name) {
        this(id,name,1.0);
    }

    public Product(int id, String name, double price) {
        this(id,name,price,"DEFAULT");
    }

    public Product(int id,String name,double price, String category){
        this.productId=id;
        this.productName=name;
        this.productPrice=price;
        this.category=category;
    }
}

So something like below will not work.

public Product(int id, String name, double price) {
    System.out.println("Calling constructor with price");
    this(id,name,price,"DEFAULT");
}

Questions:
Answers:

Calling constructor from another constructor

class MyConstructorDemo extends ConstructorDemo
{
    MyConstructorDemo()
    {
        this("calling another constructor");
    }
    MyConstructorDemo(String arg)
    {
        System.out.print("This is passed String by another constructor :"+arg);
    }
}

Also you can call parent constructor by using super() call

Questions:
Answers:

The keyword this can be used to call a constructor from a constructor, when writing several constructor for a class, there are times when you’d like to call one constructor from another to avoid duplicate code.

Bellow is a link that I explain other topic about constructor and getters() and setters() and I used a class with two constructors. I hope the explanations and examples help you.

Setter methods or constructors

Questions:
Answers:

Yes it is possible to call one constructor from another with use of this()

class example{
   private int a = 1;
   example(){
        this(5) //here another constructor called based on constructor argument
        System.out.println("number a is "+a);   
   }
   example(int b){
        System.out.println("number b is "+b);
   }

Questions:
Answers:

Yes, any number of constructors can be present in a class and they can be called by another constructor using this()[Please do not confuse this() constructor call with this keyword].
this() or this(args) should be the first line in the constructor.

Example:
Class Test{
    Test(){
        this(10) // calls the constructor with integer args, Test(int a)
    }
    Test(int a){
        this(10.5) // call the constructor with double arg, Test(double a)
    }
    Test(double a){
        System.out.println("I am a double arg constructor");
    }
}

This is known as constructor overloading.
Please note that for constructor only overloading concept is applicable and not inheritance or overriding.