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How do I connect to a specific Wi-Fi network in Android programmatically?

Posted by: admin March 10, 2020 Leave a comment

Questions:

I want to design an app which shows a list of Wi-Fi networks available and connect to whichever network is selected by the user.

I have implemented the part showing the scan results. Now I want to connect to a particular network selected by the user from the list of scan results.

How do I do this?

How to&Answers:

You need to create WifiConfiguration instance like this:

String networkSSID = "test";
String networkPass = "pass";

WifiConfiguration conf = new WifiConfiguration();
conf.SSID = "\"" + networkSSID + "\"";   // Please note the quotes. String should contain ssid in quotes

Then, for WEP network you need to do this:

conf.wepKeys[0] = "\"" + networkPass + "\""; 
conf.wepTxKeyIndex = 0;
conf.allowedKeyManagement.set(WifiConfiguration.KeyMgmt.NONE);
conf.allowedGroupCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.GroupCipher.WEP40); 

For WPA network you need to add passphrase like this:

conf.preSharedKey = "\""+ networkPass +"\"";

For Open network you need to do this:

conf.allowedKeyManagement.set(WifiConfiguration.KeyMgmt.NONE);

Then, you need to add it to Android wifi manager settings:

WifiManager wifiManager = (WifiManager)context.getSystemService(Context.WIFI_SERVICE); 
wifiManager.addNetwork(conf);

And finally, you might need to enable it, so Android connects to it:

List<WifiConfiguration> list = wifiManager.getConfiguredNetworks();
for( WifiConfiguration i : list ) {
    if(i.SSID != null && i.SSID.equals("\"" + networkSSID + "\"")) {
         wifiManager.disconnect();
         wifiManager.enableNetwork(i.networkId, true);
         wifiManager.reconnect();               

         break;
    }           
 }

UPD: In case of WEP, if your password is in hex, you do not need to surround it with quotes.

Answer:

The earlier answer works, but the solution can actually be simpler. Looping through the configured networks list is not required as you get the network id when you add the network through the WifiManager.

So the complete, simplified solution would look something like this:

WifiConfiguration wifiConfig = new WifiConfiguration();
wifiConfig.SSID = String.format("\"%s\"", ssid);
wifiConfig.preSharedKey = String.format("\"%s\"", key);

WifiManager wifiManager = (WifiManager)getSystemService(WIFI_SERVICE);
//remember id
int netId = wifiManager.addNetwork(wifiConfig);
wifiManager.disconnect();
wifiManager.enableNetwork(netId, true);
wifiManager.reconnect();

Answer:

Before connecting WIFI network you need to check security type of the WIFI network ScanResult class has a capabilities. This field gives you type of network

Refer: https://developer.android.com/reference/android/net/wifi/ScanResult.html#capabilities

There are three types of WIFI networks.

First, instantiate a WifiConfiguration object and fill in the network’s SSID (note that it has to be enclosed in double quotes), set the initial state to disabled, and specify the network’s priority (numbers around 40 seem to work well).

WifiConfiguration wfc = new WifiConfiguration();

wfc.SSID = "\"".concat(ssid).concat("\"");
wfc.status = WifiConfiguration.Status.DISABLED;
wfc.priority = 40;

Now for the more complicated part: we need to fill several members of WifiConfiguration to specify the network’s security mode.
For open networks.

wfc.allowedKeyManagement.set(WifiConfiguration.KeyMgmt.NONE);
wfc.allowedProtocols.set(WifiConfiguration.Protocol.RSN);
wfc.allowedProtocols.set(WifiConfiguration.Protocol.WPA);
wfc.allowedAuthAlgorithms.clear();
wfc.allowedPairwiseCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.PairwiseCipher.CCMP);
wfc.allowedPairwiseCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.PairwiseCipher.TKIP);
wfc.allowedGroupCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.GroupCipher.WEP40);
wfc.allowedGroupCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.GroupCipher.WEP104);
wfc.allowedGroupCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.GroupCipher.CCMP);
wfc.allowedGroupCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.GroupCipher.TKIP);

For networks using WEP; note that the WEP key is also enclosed in double quotes.

wfc.allowedKeyManagement.set(WifiConfiguration.KeyMgmt.NONE);
wfc.allowedProtocols.set(WifiConfiguration.Protocol.RSN);
wfc.allowedProtocols.set(WifiConfiguration.Protocol.WPA);
wfc.allowedAuthAlgorithms.set(WifiConfiguration.AuthAlgorithm.OPEN);
wfc.allowedAuthAlgorithms.set(WifiConfiguration.AuthAlgorithm.SHARED);
wfc.allowedPairwiseCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.PairwiseCipher.CCMP);
wfc.allowedPairwiseCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.PairwiseCipher.TKIP);
wfc.allowedGroupCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.GroupCipher.WEP40);
wfc.allowedGroupCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.GroupCipher.WEP104);

if (isHexString(password)) wfc.wepKeys[0] = password;
else wfc.wepKeys[0] = "\"".concat(password).concat("\"");
wfc.wepTxKeyIndex = 0;

For networks using WPA and WPA2, we can set the same values for either.

wfc.allowedProtocols.set(WifiConfiguration.Protocol.RSN);
wfc.allowedProtocols.set(WifiConfiguration.Protocol.WPA);
wfc.allowedKeyManagement.set(WifiConfiguration.KeyMgmt.WPA_PSK);
wfc.allowedPairwiseCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.PairwiseCipher.CCMP);
wfc.allowedPairwiseCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.PairwiseCipher.TKIP);
wfc.allowedGroupCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.GroupCipher.WEP40);
wfc.allowedGroupCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.GroupCipher.WEP104);
wfc.allowedGroupCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.GroupCipher.CCMP);
wfc.allowedGroupCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.GroupCipher.TKIP);

wfc.preSharedKey = "\"".concat(password).concat("\"");

Finally, we can add the network to the WifiManager’s known list

WifiManager wfMgr = (WifiManager) context.getSystemService(Context.WIFI_SERVICE);
int networkId = wfMgr.addNetwork(wfc);
if (networkId != -1) {
 // success, can call wfMgr.enableNetwork(networkId, true) to connect
} 

Answer:

Credit to @raji-ramamoorthi & @kenota

The solution which worked for me is combination of above contributors in this thread.

To get ScanResult here is the process.

WifiManager wifi = (WifiManager) getSystemService(Context.WIFI_SERVICE);
if (wifi.isWifiEnabled() == false) {
            Toast.makeText(getApplicationContext(), "wifi is disabled..making it enabled", Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show();
            wifi.setWifiEnabled(true);
        }

BroadcastReceiver broadcastReceiver = new BroadcastReceiver() {
            @Override
            public void onReceive(Context c, Intent intent) {
                 wifi.getScanResults();
            }
        };

Notice to unregister it on onPause & onStop live this unregisterReceiver(broadcastReceiver);

public void connectWiFi(ScanResult scanResult) {
        try {

            Log.v("rht", "Item clicked, SSID " + scanResult.SSID + " Security : " + scanResult.capabilities);

            String networkSSID = scanResult.SSID;
            String networkPass = "12345678";

            WifiConfiguration conf = new WifiConfiguration();
            conf.SSID = "\"" + networkSSID + "\"";   // Please note the quotes. String should contain ssid in quotes
            conf.status = WifiConfiguration.Status.ENABLED;
            conf.priority = 40;

            if (scanResult.capabilities.toUpperCase().contains("WEP")) {
                Log.v("rht", "Configuring WEP");    
                conf.allowedKeyManagement.set(WifiConfiguration.KeyMgmt.NONE);
                conf.allowedProtocols.set(WifiConfiguration.Protocol.RSN);
                conf.allowedProtocols.set(WifiConfiguration.Protocol.WPA);
                conf.allowedAuthAlgorithms.set(WifiConfiguration.AuthAlgorithm.OPEN);
                conf.allowedAuthAlgorithms.set(WifiConfiguration.AuthAlgorithm.SHARED);
                conf.allowedPairwiseCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.PairwiseCipher.CCMP);
                conf.allowedPairwiseCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.PairwiseCipher.TKIP);
                conf.allowedGroupCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.GroupCipher.WEP40);
                conf.allowedGroupCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.GroupCipher.WEP104);

                if (networkPass.matches("^[0-9a-fA-F]+$")) {
                    conf.wepKeys[0] = networkPass;
                } else {
                    conf.wepKeys[0] = "\"".concat(networkPass).concat("\"");
                }

                conf.wepTxKeyIndex = 0;

            } else if (scanResult.capabilities.toUpperCase().contains("WPA")) {
                Log.v("rht", "Configuring WPA");

                conf.allowedProtocols.set(WifiConfiguration.Protocol.RSN);
                conf.allowedProtocols.set(WifiConfiguration.Protocol.WPA);
                conf.allowedKeyManagement.set(WifiConfiguration.KeyMgmt.WPA_PSK);
                conf.allowedPairwiseCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.PairwiseCipher.CCMP);
                conf.allowedPairwiseCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.PairwiseCipher.TKIP);
                conf.allowedGroupCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.GroupCipher.WEP40);
                conf.allowedGroupCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.GroupCipher.WEP104);
                conf.allowedGroupCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.GroupCipher.CCMP);
                conf.allowedGroupCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.GroupCipher.TKIP);

                conf.preSharedKey = "\"" + networkPass + "\"";

            } else {
                Log.v("rht", "Configuring OPEN network");
                conf.allowedKeyManagement.set(WifiConfiguration.KeyMgmt.NONE);
                conf.allowedProtocols.set(WifiConfiguration.Protocol.RSN);
                conf.allowedProtocols.set(WifiConfiguration.Protocol.WPA);
                conf.allowedAuthAlgorithms.clear();
                conf.allowedPairwiseCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.PairwiseCipher.CCMP);
                conf.allowedPairwiseCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.PairwiseCipher.TKIP);
                conf.allowedGroupCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.GroupCipher.WEP40);
                conf.allowedGroupCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.GroupCipher.WEP104);
                conf.allowedGroupCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.GroupCipher.CCMP);
                conf.allowedGroupCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.GroupCipher.TKIP);
            }

            WifiManager wifiManager = (WifiManager) WiFiApplicationCore.getAppContext().getSystemService(Context.WIFI_SERVICE);
            int networkId = wifiManager.addNetwork(conf);

            Log.v("rht", "Add result " + networkId);

            List<WifiConfiguration> list = wifiManager.getConfiguredNetworks();
            for (WifiConfiguration i : list) {
                if (i.SSID != null && i.SSID.equals("\"" + networkSSID + "\"")) {
                    Log.v("rht", "WifiConfiguration SSID " + i.SSID);

                    boolean isDisconnected = wifiManager.disconnect();
                    Log.v("rht", "isDisconnected : " + isDisconnected);

                    boolean isEnabled = wifiManager.enableNetwork(i.networkId, true);
                    Log.v("rht", "isEnabled : " + isEnabled);

                    boolean isReconnected = wifiManager.reconnect();
                    Log.v("rht", "isReconnected : " + isReconnected);

                    break;
                }
            }

        } catch (Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }

Answer:

If your device knows the Wifi configs (already stored), we can bypass rocket science. Just loop through the configs an check if the SSID is matching. If so, connect and return.

Set permissions:

<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.ACCESS_WIFI_STATE" />
<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.CHANGE_WIFI_STATE" />

Connect:

    try {
    String ssid = null;
    if (wifi == Wifi.PCAN_WIRELESS_GATEWAY) {
        ssid = AesPrefs.get(AesConst.PCAN_WIRELESS_SSID,
                context.getString(R.string.pcan_wireless_ssid_default));
    } else if (wifi == Wifi.KJ_WIFI) {
        ssid = context.getString(R.string.remote_wifi_ssid_default);
    }

    WifiManager wifiManager = (WifiManager) context.getApplicationContext()
            .getSystemService(Context.WIFI_SERVICE);

    List<WifiConfiguration> wifiConfigurations = wifiManager.getConfiguredNetworks();

    for (WifiConfiguration wifiConfiguration : wifiConfigurations) {
        if (wifiConfiguration.SSID.equals("\"" + ssid + "\"")) {
            wifiManager.enableNetwork(wifiConfiguration.networkId, true);
            Log.i(TAG, "connectToWifi: will enable " + wifiConfiguration.SSID);
            wifiManager.reconnect();
            return null; // return! (sometimes logcat showed me network-entries twice,
            // which may will end in bugs)
        }
    }
} catch (NullPointerException | IllegalStateException e) {
    Log.e(TAG, "connectToWifi: Missing network configuration.");
}
return null;

Answer:

This is an activity you can subclass to force the connecting to a specific wifi:
https://github.com/zoltanersek/android-wifi-activity/blob/master/app/src/main/java/com/zoltanersek/androidwifiactivity/WifiActivity.java

You will need to subclass this activity and implement its methods:

public class SampleActivity extends WifiBaseActivity {
  @Override
  protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
      super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
  }

  @Override
  protected int getSecondsTimeout() {
      return 10;
  }

  @Override
  protected String getWifiSSID() {
      return "WifiNetwork";
  }

  @Override
  protected String getWifiPass() {
      return "123456";
  }
}

Answer:

I broke my head to understand why your answers for WPA/WPA2 don’t work…after hours of tries I found what you are missing:

conf.allowedAuthAlgorithms.set(WifiConfiguration.AuthAlgorithm.OPEN);

is REQUIRED for WPA networks!!!!

Now, it works 🙂

Answer:

In API level 29, WifiManager.enableNetwork() method is deprecated. As per Android API documentation(check here):

  1. See WifiNetworkSpecifier.Builder#build() for new mechanism to trigger connection to a Wi-Fi network.
  2. See addNetworkSuggestions(java.util.List), removeNetworkSuggestions(java.util.List) for new API to add Wi-Fi
    networks for consideration when auto-connecting to wifi. Compatibility
    Note: For applications targeting Build.VERSION_CODES.Q or above, this
    API will always return false.

From API level 29, to connect to WiFi network, you will need to use WifiNetworkSpecifier. You can find example code at https://developer.android.com/reference/android/net/wifi/WifiNetworkSpecifier.Builder.html#build()

Answer:

I also tried to connect to the network.
None of the solutions proposed above works for hugerock t70.
Function wifiManager.disconnect(); doesn’t disconnect from current network.
Аnd therefore cannot reconnect to the specified network.
I have modified the above code.
For me the code bolow works perfectly:

String networkSSID = "test";
String networkPass = "pass";

WifiConfiguration conf = new WifiConfiguration();
conf.SSID = "\"" + networkSSID + "\"";   
conf.wepKeys[0] = "\"" + networkPass + "\""; 
conf.wepTxKeyIndex = 0;
conf.allowedKeyManagement.set(WifiConfiguration.KeyMgmt.NONE);
conf.allowedGroupCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.GroupCipher.WEP40); 
conf.preSharedKey = "\""+ networkPass +"\"";

WifiManager wifiManager =         
(WifiManager)context.getSystemService(Context.WIFI_SERVICE);    

int networkId = wifiManager.addNetwork(conf);
wifi_inf = wifiManager.getConnectionInfo();

/////important!!!
wifiManager.disableNetwork(wifi_inf.getNetworkId());
/////////////////

wifiManager.enableNetwork(networkId, true);

Answer:

Try this method. It’s very easy:

public static boolean setSsidAndPassword(Context context, String ssid, String ssidPassword) {
    try {
        WifiManager wifiManager = (WifiManager) context.getSystemService(context.WIFI_SERVICE);
        Method getConfigMethod = wifiManager.getClass().getMethod("getWifiApConfiguration");
        WifiConfiguration wifiConfig = (WifiConfiguration) getConfigMethod.invoke(wifiManager);

        wifiConfig.SSID = ssid;
        wifiConfig.preSharedKey = ssidPassword;

        Method setConfigMethod = wifiManager.getClass().getMethod("setWifiApConfiguration", WifiConfiguration.class);
        setConfigMethod.invoke(wifiManager, wifiConfig);

        return true;
    } catch (Exception e) {
        e.printStackTrace();
        return false;
    }
}