Home » Java » How to directly initialize a HashMap (in a literal way)? [duplicate]

How to directly initialize a HashMap (in a literal way)? [duplicate]

Posted by: admin November 2, 2017 Leave a comment

Questions:

This question already has an answer here:

Answers:

No, you will have to add all the elements manually. You can use a static initializer though:

public class Demo
{
    private static final Map<String, String> myMap;
    static
    {
        myMap = new HashMap<String, String>();
        myMap.put("a", "b");
        myMap.put("c", "d");
    }
}

Note that using a function for initialization will do the same but may improve readability of the code:

public class Demo
{
    private static final Map<String, String> myMap = createMap();
    private static Map<String, String> createMap()
    {
        Map<String,String> myMap = new HashMap<String,String>();
        myMap.put("a", "b");
        myMap.put("c", "d");
        return myMap;
    }
}

Java 9

In Java 9 a couple of factory-methods are added that can also be used to simplify the creation of maps:

public class Demo {
    private static final Map<String, String> test = Map.of("a", "b", "c", "d");
    private static final Map<String, String> test2 = Map.ofEntries(
        entry("a", "b"),
        entry("c", "d")
    );
}

In the example above both test and test2 will be the same, just with different ways of expressing the Map. The Map.of method is defined for up to ten elements in the map, while the Map.ofEntries method will have no such limit.

Note that in this case the resulting map will be an immutable map. If you want the map to be mutable, you could copy it again, e.g. using mutableMap = new HashMap<>(Map.of("a", "b"));

(See also JEP 269 and the Javadoc)

Questions:
Answers:

This is one way.

HashMap<String, String> h = new HashMap<String, String>() {{
    put("a","b");
}};

However, you should be careful and make sure that you understand the above code (it creates a new class that inherits from HashMap). Therefore, you should read more here:
http://www.c2.com/cgi/wiki?DoubleBraceInitialization
, or simply use Guava:

Map<String, Integer> left = ImmutableMap.of("a", 1, "b", 2, "c", 3);

Questions:
Answers:

If you allow 3rd party libs you can use Guava‘s ImmutableMap to achieve literal-like brevity:

Map<String, String> test = ImmutableMap.of("k1", "v1", "k2", "v2");

This works for up to 5 key/value pairs, otherwise you can use its builder:

Map<String, String> test = ImmutableMap.<String, String>builder()
    .put("k1", "v1")
    .put("k2", "v2")
    ...
    .build();

  • note that Guava’s ImmutableMap implementation differs from Java’s HashMap implementation (most notably it is immutable and does not permit null keys/values)
  • for more info see Guava’s user guide article on its immutable collection types
Questions:
Answers:

There is no direct way to do this – Java has no Map literals (yet – I think they were proposed for Java 8).

Some people like this:

Map<String,String> test = new HashMap<String, String>(){{
       put("test","test"); put("test","test");}};

This creates an anonymous subclass of HashMap, whose instance initializer puts these values. (By the way, a map can’t contain twice the same value, your second put will overwrite the first one. I’ll use different values for the next examples.)

The normal way would be this (for a local variable):

Map<String,String> test = new HashMap<String, String>();
test.put("test","test");
test.put("test1","test2");

If your test map is an instance variable, put the initialization in a constructor or instance initializer:

Map<String,String> test = new HashMap<String, String>();
{
    test.put("test","test");
    test.put("test1","test2");
}

If your test map is a class variable, put the initialization in a static initializer:

static Map<String,String> test = new HashMap<String, String>();
static {
    test.put("test","test");
    test.put("test1","test2");
}

If you want your map to never change, you should after the initialization wrap your map by Collections.unmodifiableMap(...). You can do this in a static initializer too:

static Map<String,String> test;
{
    Map<String,String> temp = new HashMap<String, String>();
    temp.put("test","test");
    temp.put("test1","test2");
    test = Collections.unmodifiableMap(temp);
}

(I’m not sure if you can now make test final … try it out and report here.)

Questions:
Answers:
Map<String,String> test = new HashMap<String, String>()
{
    {
        put(key1, value1);
        put(key2, value2);
    }
};

Questions:
Answers:

An alternative, using plain Java 7 classes and varargs: create a class HashMapBuilder with this method:

public static HashMap<String, String> build(String... data){
    HashMap<String, String> result = new HashMap<String, String>();

    if(data.length % 2 != 0) 
        throw new IllegalArgumentException("Odd number of arguments");      

    String key = null;
    Integer step = -1;

    for(String value : data){
        step++;
        switch(step % 2){
        case 0: 
            if(value == null)
                throw new IllegalArgumentException("Null key value"); 
            key = value;
            continue;
        case 1:             
            result.put(key, value);
            break;
        }
    }

    return result;
}

Use the method like this:

HashMap<String,String> data = HashMapBuilder.build("key1","value1","key2","value2");