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How to raise a ValueError?

Posted by: admin November 29, 2017 Leave a comment

Questions:

I have this code which finds the largest index of a specific character in a string, however I would like it to raise a ValueError when the specified character does not occur in a string.

So something like this:

contains('bababa', 'k')

would result in a:

ValueError: could not find k in bababa

How can I do this?

Here’s the current code for my function:

def contains(string,char):
  list = []

  for i in range(0,len(string)):
      if string[i] == char:
           list = list + [i]

  return list[-1]
Answers:

raise ValueError('could not find %c in %s' % (ch,str))

Questions:
Answers:

Here’s a revised version of your code which still works plus it illustrates how to raise a ValueError the way you want. By-the-way, I think find_last(), find_last_index(), or something simlar would be a more descriptive name for this function.

def contains(char_string, char):
    largest_index = -1
    for i, ch in enumerate(char_string):
        if ch == char:
            largest_index = i
    if largest_index > -1:  # any found?
        return largest_index  # return index of last one
    else:
        raise ValueError('could not find {} in {}'.format(char, char_string))

print(contains('mississippi', 's'))  # -> 6
print(contains('bababa', 'k'))  # ->
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "how-to-raise-a-valueerror.py", line 15, in <module>
    print(contains('bababa', 'k'))
  File "how-to-raise-a-valueerror.py", line 12, in contains
    raise ValueError('could not find {} in {}'.format(char, char_string))
ValueError: could not find k in bababa

Update — A substantially simpler way

Wow! Here’s a much more concise version—essentially a one-liner—that is also likely faster because it reverses (via [::-1]) the string before doing a forward search through it for the first matching character and it does so using the fast built-in string index() method. With respect to your actual question, a nice little bonus convenience that comes with using index() is that it already raises a ValueError when the character substring isn’t found, so nothing additional is required to make that happen.

Here it is along with a quick unit test:

def contains(char_string, char):
    # (-1 adjusts returned index to account for searching in reverse)
    return len(char_string) - char_string[::-1].index(char) - 1

print(contains('mississippi', 's'))  # -> 6
print(contains('bababa', 'k'))  # ->
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "better-way-to-raise-a-valueerror.py", line 9, in <module>
    print(contains('bababa', 'k'))
  File "better-way-to-raise-a-valueerror", line 6, in contains
    return len(char_string) - char_string[::-1].index(char) - 1
ValueError: substring not found

Questions:
Answers:
>>> def contains(string, char):
...     for i in xrange(len(string) - 1, -1, -1):
...         if string[i] == char:
...             return i
...     raise ValueError("could not find %r in %r" % (char, string))
...
>>> contains('bababa', 'k')
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
  File "<stdin>", line 5, in contains
ValueError: could not find 'k' in 'bababa'
>>> contains('bababa', 'a')
5
>>> contains('bababa', 'b')
4
>>> contains('xbababa', 'x')
0
>>>

Questions:
Answers:
>>> response='bababa'
...  if "K" in response.text:
...     raise ValueError("Not found")

Questions:
Answers:

In the latest version of python you can use fstrings for this

lets value = "Hello"

raise ValidationError(f"{value} is not valid category")