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MongoDB object mapping (PHP)

Posted by: admin July 12, 2020 Leave a comment

Questions:

Intoduction problem:

What is the best practice to build my class T object, when I receive it from a MongoCursor::getNext()? As far as it goes, getNext() function of a MongoCursor returns with an array. I wish to use the result from that point as an object of type T.

Should I write my own constructor for type T, that accepts an array? Is there any generic solution to this, for example when type T extends G, and G does the job as a regular way, recursively (for nested documents).

I’m new to MongoDB, and I’d like to build my own generic mapper with a nice interface.

Bounty:

  • Which are the possible approaches, patterns and which would fit the concept of MongoDB the most from the view of PHP.
How to&Answers:

This answer has been rewritten.

Most data mappers work by representing one object per class or “model” is normally the coined term. If you wish to allow multiple accession through a single object (i.e. $model->find()) it is normally demmed so that the method will not actually return an instance of itself but instead that of an array or a MongoCursor eager loading classes into the space.

Such a paradigm is normally connected with “Active Record”. This is the method that ORMs, ODMs and frameworks all use to communicate to databases in one way or another, not only for MongoDB but also for SQL and any other databases to happen to crop up (Cassandra, CouchDB etc etc).

It should be noted immediately that even though active record gives a lot of power it should not be blanketed across the entire application. There are times where using the driver directly would be more benefical. Most ORMs, ODMs and frameworks provide the ability to quickly and effortlessly access the driver directly for this reason.

There is, as many would say, no light weight data mapper. If you are going to map your returned data to classes then it will consume resources, end of. The benefit of doing this is the power you receive when manipulating your objects.

Active record is really good at being able to provide events and triggers from within PHP. A good example is that of an ORM I made for Yii: https://github.com/Sammaye/MongoYii it can provide hooks for:

  • afterConstruct
  • beforeFind
  • afterFind
  • beforeValidate
  • afterValidate
  • beforeSave
  • afterSave

It should be noted that when it comes to events like beforeSave and afterSave MongoDB does not possess triggers ( https://jira.mongodb.org/browse/SERVER-124 ) so it makes sense that the application should handle this. On top of the obvious reason for the application to handle this it also makes much better handling of the save functions by being able to call your native PHP functions to manipulate every document saved prior to touching the database.

Most data mappers work by using PHP own class CRUD to represent theirs too. For example to create a new record:

$d=new User();
$d->username='sammaye';
$d->save();

This is quite a good approach since you create a “new” ( https://github.com/Sammaye/MongoYii/blob/master/EMongoDocument.php#L46 shows how I prepare for a new record in MongoYii ) class to make a “new” record. It kind of fits quite nicely semantically.

Update functions are normally accessed through read functions, you cannot update a model you don’t know the existane of. This brings us onto the next step of populating models.

To handle populating a model different ORMs, ODMs and frameworks commit to different methods. For example, my MongoYii extension uses a factory method called model in each class to bring back a new instance of itself so I can call th dynamic find and findOne and other such methods.

Some ORMs, ODMs and frameworks provide the read functions as direct static functions making them into factory methods themselves whereas some use the singleton pattern, however, I chose not to ( https://stackoverflow.com/a/4596323/383478 ).

Most, if not all, implement some form of the cursor. This is used to return multiples of the models and directly wraps (normally) the MongoCursor to replace the current() method with returning a pre-populate model.

For example calling:

User::model()->find();

Would return a EMongoCursor (in MongoYii) which would then sotre the fact that the class User was used to instantiate the cursor and when called like:

foreach(User::model() as $k=>$v){
    var_dump($v);
}

Would call the current() method here: https://github.com/Sammaye/MongoYii/blob/master/EMongoCursor.php#L102 returning a new single instance of the model.

There are some ORMs, ODMs and frameworks which implement eager array loading. This means they will just load the whole result straight into your RAM as an array of models. I personally do not like this approach, it is wasteful and also does not bode well when you need to use active record for larger updates due to adding some new functionality in places that needs adding to old records.

One last topic before I move on is the schemaless nature of MongoDB. The problem with using PHP classes with MongoDB is that you want all the functionality of PHP but with the variable nature of MongoDB. This is easy to over come in SQL since it has a pre-defined schema, you just query for it and jobs done; however, MongoDB has no such thing.

This does make schema handling in MongoDB quite hazardous. Most ORMs, ODMs and frameworks demand that you pre-define the schema in the spot (i.e. Doctrine 2) using private variables with get and set methods. In MongoYii, to make my life easy and elegant, I decided to retain MongoDBs schemaless nature by using magics that would detect ( https://github.com/Sammaye/MongoYii/blob/master/EMongoModel.php#L26 is my __get and https://github.com/Sammaye/MongoYii/blob/master/EMongoModel.php#L47 is my __set ), if the property wa inaccessible in the class, if the field was in a internal _attributes array and if not then just return null. Likewise, for setting an attribute I would just set in the intrernal _attributes variable.

As for dealing with how to assign this schema I left internal assignment upto the user however, to deal with setting properties from forms etc I used the validation rules ( https://github.com/Sammaye/MongoYii/blob/master/EMongoModel.php#L236 ) calling a function called getSafeAttributeNames() which would return a list of attributes which had validation rules against them. If they did not have validation rules then those attributes which existed in the incoming $_POST or $_GET array would not be set. So this provided the ability for a schema, yet secure, model structure.

So we have covered how to actually use the root document you also ask how to data mappers handle subdocuments. Doctrine 2 and many others provide full class based subdocuments ( http://docs.doctrine-project.org/projects/doctrine-mongodb-odm/en/latest/reference/embedded-mapping.html ) but this can be extremely resourceful. Instead I decided that I would provide helper functions which would allow for flexible usage of subdocument without eager loading them into models and so consuming RAM. Basically what I did was to leave them as they are a provide a validator ( https://github.com/Sammaye/MongoYii/blob/master/validators/ESubdocumentValidator.php ) for validating inside of them. Of course the validator is self spawning so if you had a rule in the validator that used the validator again to issue a validation of a nested subdocument then it would work.

So I think that completes a very basic discussion of ORMs, ODMs and frameworks use data mappers. Of course I could probably write an entire essay on this but this is a good enough discussion for the minute I believe.