I have a question regarding mysql commits and transactions.
I have a couple of php statements that execute mysql queries.
Do I just say the following?
mysql_query("START TRANSACTION"); //more queries here mysql_query("COMMIT");
What exactly would this do? How does it help? For updates, deletes and insertions I also found this to block other queries from reading:
mysql_query("LOCK TABLES t1 WRITE, t2 WRITE"); //more queries here mysql_query("UNLOCK TABLES t1, t2");
Would this block other queries whatever nature or only writes/selects?
Another question: Say one query is running and blocks other queries. Another query tries to access blocked data – and it sees that it is blocked. How does it proceed? Does it wait until the data is unblocked again and re-execute the query? Does it just fail and needs to be repeated? If so, how can I check?
Thanks a lot!
In InnoDB, you do not need to explicitly start or end transactions for single queries if you have not changed the default setting of autocommit, which is “on”. If autocommit is on, InnoDB automatically encloses every single SQL query in a transaction, which is the equivalent of
START TRANSACTION; query; COMMIT;.
If you explicitly use
START TRANSACTION in InnoDB with autocommit on, then any queries executed after a
START TRANSACTION statement will either all be executed, or all of them will fail. This is useful in banking environments, for example: if I am transferring $500 to your bank account, that operation should only succeed if the sum has been subtracted from my bank balance and added to yours. So in this case, you’d run something like
START TRANSACTION; UPDATE customers SET balance = balance - 500 WHERE customer = 'Daan'; UPDATE customers SET balance = balance + 500 WHERE customer = 'Dennis'; COMMIT;
This ensures that either both queries will run successfully, or none, but not just one.
This post has some more on when you should use transactions.
In InnoDB, you will very rarely have to lock entire tables; InnoDB, unlike MyISAM, supports row-level locking. This means clients do not have to lock the entire table, forcing other clients to wait. Clients should only lock the rows they actually need, allowing other clients to continue accessing the rows they need.
You can read more about InnoDB transactions here. Your questions about deadlocking are answered in sections 18.104.22.168 and 22.214.171.124 of the docs. If a query fails, your MySQL driver will return an error message indicating the reason; your app should then reissue the queries if required.
Finally, in your example code, you used
mysql_query. If you are writing new code, please stop using the old, slow, and deprecated
mysql_ library for PHP and use
mysqli_ or PDO instead 🙂