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Python class method decorator w/ self arguments?

Posted by: admin November 30, 2017 Leave a comment

Questions:

How do I pass a class field to a decorator on a class method as an argument? What I want to do is something like:

class Client(object):
    def __init__(self, url):
        self.url = url

    @check_authorization("some_attr", self.url)
    def get(self):
        do_work()

It complains that self doesn’t exist for passing self.url to the decorator. Is there a way around this?

Answers:

Yes. Instead of passing in the instance attribute at class definition time, check it at runtime:

def check_authorization(f):
    def wrapper(*args):
        print args[0].url
        return f(*args)
    return wrapper

class Client(object):
    def __init__(self, url):
        self.url = url

    @check_authorization
    def get(self):
        print 'get'

>>> Client('http://www.google.com').get()
http://www.google.com
get

The decorator intercepts the method arguments; the first argument is the instance, so it reads the attribute off of that. You can pass in the attribute name as a string to the decorator and use getattr if you don’t want to hardcode the attribute name:

def check_authorization(attribute):
    def _check_authorization(f):
        def wrapper(self, *args):
            print getattr(self, attribute)
            return f(self, *args)
        return wrapper
    return _check_authorization

Questions:
Answers:
from re import search
from functools import wraps

def is_match(_lambda, pattern):
    def wrapper(f):
        @wraps(f)
        def wrapped(self, *f_args, **f_kwargs):
            if callable(_lambda) and search(pattern, (_lambda(self) or '')): 
                f(self, *f_args, **f_kwargs)
        return wrapped
    return wrapper

class MyTest(object):

    def __init__(self):
        self.name = 'foo'
        self.surname = 'bar'

    @is_match(lambda x: x.name, 'foo')
    @is_match(lambda x: x.surname, 'foo')
    def my_rule(self):
        print 'my_rule : ok'

    @is_match(lambda x: x.name, 'foo')
    @is_match(lambda x: x.surname, 'bar')
    def my_rule2(self):
        print 'my_rule2 : ok'



test = MyTest()
test.my_rule()
test.my_rule2()

ouput:
my_rule2 : ok

Questions:
Answers:

A more concise example might be as follows:

#/usr/bin/env python3
from functools import wraps

def wrapper(method):
    @wraps(method)
    def _impl(self, *method_args, **method_kwargs):
        return method(self, *method_args, **method_kwargs) + "!"
    return _impl

class Foo:
    @wrapper
    def bar(self, word):
        return word

f = Foo()
result = f.bar("kitty")
print(result)

Which will print:

kitty!

Questions:
Answers:

You can’t. There’s no self in the class body, because no instance exists. You’d need to pass it, say, a str containing the attribute name to lookup on the instance, which the returned function can then do, or use a different method entirely.