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Reusing a PreparedStatement multiple times

Posted by: admin November 30, 2017 Leave a comment

Questions:

in the case of using PreparedStatement with a single common connection without any pool, can I recreate an instance for every dml/sql operation mantaining the power of prepared statements?

I mean:

for (int i=0; i<1000; i++) {
    PreparedStatement preparedStatement = connection.prepareStatement(sql);
    preparedStatement.setObject(1, someValue);
    preparedStatement.executeQuery();
    preparedStatement.close();
}

instead of:

PreparedStatement preparedStatement = connection.prepareStatement(sql);
for (int i=0; i<1000; i++) {
    preparedStatement.clearParameters();
    preparedStatement.setObject(1, someValue);
    preparedStatement.executeQuery();
}
preparedStatement.close();

my question arises by the fact that I want to put this code into a multithreaded environment, can you give me some advice? thanks

Answers:

The second way is a tad more efficient, but a much better way is to execute them in batches:

public void executeBatch(List<Entity> entities) throws SQLException { 
    try (
        Connection connection = dataSource.getConnection();
        PreparedStatement statement = connection.prepareStatement(SQL);
    ) {
        for (Entity entity : entities) {
            statement.setObject(1, entity.getSomeProperty());
            // ...

            statement.addBatch();
        }

        statement.executeBatch();
    }
}

You’re however dependent on the JDBC driver implementation how many batches you could execute at once. You may for example want to execute them every 1000 batches:

public void executeBatch(List<Entity> entities) throws SQLException { 
    try (
        Connection connection = dataSource.getConnection();
        PreparedStatement statement = connection.prepareStatement(SQL);
    ) {
        int i = 0;

        for (Entity entity : entities) {
            statement.setObject(1, entity.getSomeProperty());
            // ...

            statement.addBatch();
            i++;

            if (i % 1000 == 0 || i == entities.size()) {
                statement.executeBatch(); // Execute every 1000 items.
            }
        }
    }
}

As to the multithreaded environments, you don’t need to worry about this if you acquire and close the connection and the statement in the shortest possible scope inside the same method block according the normal JDBC idiom using try-with-resources statement as shown in above snippets.

If those batches are transactional, then you’d like to turn off autocommit of the connection and only commit the transaction when all batches are finished. Otherwise it may result in a dirty database when the first bunch of batches succeeded and the later not.

public void executeBatch(List<Entity> entities) throws SQLException { 
    try (Connection connection = dataSource.getConnection()) {
        connection.setAutoCommit(false);

        try (PreparedStatement statement = connection.prepareStatement(SQL)) {
            // ...

            try {
                connection.commit();
            } catch (SQLException e) {
                connection.rollback();
                throw e;
            }
        }
    }
}

Questions:
Answers:

The loop in your code is only an over-simplified example, right?

It would be better to create the PreparedStatement only once, and re-use it over and over again in the loop.

In situations where that is not possible (because it complicated the program flow too much), it is still beneficial to use a PreparedStatement, even if you use it only once, because the server-side of the work (parsing the SQL and caching the execution plan), will still be reduced.

To address the situation that you want to re-use the Java-side PreparedStatement, some JDBC drivers (such as Oracle) have a caching feature: If you create a PreparedStatement for the same SQL on the same connection, it will give you the same (cached) instance.

About multi-threading: I do not think JDBC connections can be shared across multiple threads (i.e. used concurrently by multiple threads) anyway.Every thread should get his own connection from the pool, use it, and return it to the pool again.