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Why is JSON.stringify not serializing prototype values?

Posted by: admin November 30, 2017 Leave a comment

Questions:

I have been working with a fair bit of JSON parsing and passing in Javascript within Node.js and browsers recently and bumped into this conundrum.

Any objects I created using a constructor, cannot be fully serialized fully via JSON.stringify, UNLESS I initialised all values within the constructor individually! This means my prototype becomes essentially useless in designing these classes.

Can someone shed some light on why the following doesn’t serialize as I expect?

var ClassA = function () { this.initialisedValue = "You can see me!" };
ClassA.prototype = { initialisedValue : "You can't see me!", uninitialisedValue : "You can't see me!" };
var a = new ClassA();
var a_string = JSON.stringify(a);

What happens:

a_string == { “initialisedValue” : “You can see me!” }

I would expect:

a_string == { “initialisedValue” : “You can see me!”, “uninitialisedValue” : “You can’t see me!” }

Answers:

Simply because this is the way JSON works. From the ES5 spec:

Let K be an internal List of Strings consisting of the names of all the own properties of value whose [[Enumerable]] attribute is true.

This makes sense, because there is no mechanism in the JSON specification for preserving information that would be required to parse a JSON string back into a JavaScript object if inherited properties were included. In your example, how would this parsed:

{ “initialisedValue” : “You can see me!”, “uninitialisedValue” : “You can’t see me!” }

There is no information to parse it into anything other than a flat object with 2 key-value pairs.

And if you think about it, JSON is not intended to map directly to JavaScript objects. Other languages must be able to parse JSON strings into simple structures of name-value pairs. If JSON strings contained all the information necessary to serialize complete JavaScript scope chains, other languages may be less capable of parsing that into something useful. In the words of Douglas Crockford on json.org:

These [hash tables and arrays] are universal data structures. Virtually all modern programming languages support them in one form or another. It makes sense that a data format that is interchangeable with programming languages also be based on these structures.

Questions:
Answers:

I landed in this page while using mongoose: if other users have similar issue, the following question (and related answers) could be useful:

How do you turn a Mongoose document into a plain object?

(basically: use the Model’s toObject() method)

Questions:
Answers:

I’d like to add that, even though JSON.stringify will only stringify the object’s own properties, as explained in the accepted answer, you can alter the behavior of the stringification process by specifying an array of String as the second parameter of JSON.stringify (called a replacer array).

If you specify an array of String with the whitelist of properties to stringify, the stringification algorithm will change its behavior and it will consider properties in the prototype chain.

From ES5 spec:

  1. If PropertyList is not undefined, then

    a. Let K be PropertyList.

  2. Else

    a. Let K be an internal List of Strings consisting of the names of
    all the own properties of value whose [[Enumerable]] attribute is
    true. The ordering of the Strings should be the same as that used by
    the Object.keys standard built-in function.

If you know the name of the properties of the object to stringify beforehand, you can do something like this:

var a_string = JSON.stringify(a, ["initialisedValue", "uninitialisedValue"]);
//  a_string == { "initialisedValue" : "You can see me!", "uninitialisedValue" : "You can't see me!" }